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SAARC (south asian association for regional cooperation) Summit - UPSC/PSC/IAS
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about SAARC. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2GWTcg2 Flipkart : http://fkrt.it/gxK8NLuuuN Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the fifth lesson on International Oraganisations here we are going to see about SAARC (south asian association for regional cooperation) Summit lecture which will be helpful for your preparations with climate of SAARC (south asian association for regional cooperation) UPSC/IAS South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) • SAARC is an economic & geopolitical organization of 8 countries that are primarily located in South Asia • Established in 1985; Secretariat – Kathmandu, Nepal; Official language – English • Members – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Srilanka, Maldives, Afghanistan • 1st summit at Dhaka, only 1 new member added since birth i.e. Afghanistan • 19th SAARC submit → Pakistan + Cultural Capital → Bamyan (Afghanistan) Evolution of SAARC • The idea of regional political and economic cooperation in South Asia was first raised in 1980 and the first summit was held in Dhaka on 8 December 1985, when the organization was established by the governments of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. • Since then organization has expanded by accepting one new full member, Afghanistan, and several observer members. • The official meetings of the leaders of each nation are held annually whilst the foreign ministers meet twice annually. SAARC Objectives • SAARC policies aim to promote welfare economics, collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia, and to accelerate socio-cultural development in the region • To promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life • To cooperate with international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes ________________________________________ Developments in SAARC • South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) – to reduce customs duties of all traded goods to zero by gradually. • Visa Exemption Scheme – certain categories of dignitaries should be entitled to a Special Travel document, which would exempt them from visas within the region • Regional Railways Agreement • Motor Vehicles Agreement • Framework Agreement for Energy Cooperation (Electricity) • SAARC Region Satellite launch plan South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) The Agreement on SAARC Preferential trading Arrangement (SAPTA) was signed on 11 April 1993 and entered into force on 7 December 1995, with the desire of the Member States of SAARC (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and the Maldives) to promote and sustain mutual trade and economic cooperation within the SAARC region through the exchange of concessions. • The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) is an agreement reached on 6 January 2004 at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad, Pakistan. • It created a free trade area of 1.8 billion people in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka • The seven foreign ministers of the region signed a framework agreement on SAFTA to reduce customs duties of all traded goods to zero by the year 2016. • The SAFTA agreement came into force on 1 January 2006 and is operational following the ratification of the agreement by the seven governments. SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme • SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme was launched in 1992 to allow certain categories of dignitaries to a Special Travel document, which would exempt them from visas within the region. • Currently the list included 24 categories of entitled persons, which include Dignitaries, Judges of higher courts, Parliamentarians, Senior Officials, Businessmen, Journalists, Sportsmen etc. • The Visa Stickers are issued by the respective Member States to the entitled categories of that particular country. • The validity of the Visa Sticker is generally for one year. • The implementation is reviewed regularly by the Immigration Authorities of SAARC Member States. ________________________________________ The development potential of SAARC has been stalled by various factors like. • India Pakistan bilateral issue • India’s bilateral issue with other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh • Trust deficit between India and its neighboring countries • Cross border Terrorism • Political instability in the Pakistan, Afghanistan and Maldives • Low Human development Index and resource problems in the region • Persistent problems of population, poverty, illiteracy, climate change, health, terrorism, flood and droughts And recently India has contributed much to SAARC by having launched SAARC Satellite.
Views: 21582 Exambin
NavIC – India’s answer to GPS systems of America | GPS alternative by ISRO
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about NavIc India's answer to GPS. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Advanced Surveying: Total Station, GPS, GIS & Remote Sensing by Pearson ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2L28frd Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this lesson you will be knowing about NavIC – India’s answer to GPS systems of America. Navic is a gps alternative which is otherwise known as gps of india. Navic india gps, navic india are some the key terms related to the project t. Navic is launched by isro. 7 satellite navic is using. navik gps system is indian regional navigational satellite system (irnss), navic full form is Navigation With Indian Constellation, you can know how to use navic in few months when, navic launch date is announced, isro navic, indian gps name. navic cost is reavealed by isro. navic coverage will be around india. So far we are dependent on GPS that is an American initiative. Now India is all set to unveil its own 'desi' version of GPS titled 'NavlC' now for the country and some surrounding areas. Here's all about it. What is NavIC? • NavlC - is an acronym for 'Navigation with Indian Constellation'. • It is an operational name for Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) • The name is chosen by PM Narendra Modi, after the IRNSS-1G satellite was launched. • It will provide users with accurate information about the positions and is set to will be ready for the public use by early 2018. Cost and Timeline: The project cost Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) an amount of Rs. 1,420 crore and was completed with the successful launch of IRNSS-1G satellite on April 28, 2016. ISRO’s Project Cost is Rs.1420 Crore 7th Satellite IRNSS-1G launched on April 28, 2016. IRNSS-1G was the last among the seven satellites in constellation which helps the NavlC positioning. Though, the 'desi' positioning system is operational now, it is not ready for public use as of yet. What is the difference between NavIC and GPS? India, till now, using the American GPS, which started in 1973. There have been hurdles when we use a third country’s resource one fine example is The United States had denied providing GPS information to India in 1999, during the Kargil War. With the indigenous positioning system, India will also be among the countries that have their own positioning systems like America's GPS, European Union's Galileo and Russia's GLONASS. What areas it is going to cover? Space Applications Centre director, Tapan Misra said that, "NavIC will be covering the entire country, Indian Ocean and its surroundings. In the west, the system will have a reach till eastern parts of Arabian peninsula and in the east, some parts of China. In the south, NavIC signals will work till Malaysia." On the other hand, China is also building its own Beidou Navigation Satellite System, which is not operational yet. Is there a technical difference from GPS? NavlC covers India and its surroundings with seven satellites in the constellation, while America's GPS uses 24 satellites but provides the positioning service across the world. NavIC will be providing standard positioning service to all users with a position accuracy of 5 metre. The present GPS of US has a position accuracy of 20-30 metre. How is it superior from others? SAC director Tapan Misra has told that since NavIC is not dependent on any model to find the frequency error it will be more accurate than GPS." Misra also stressed on the fact that NavlC is being made ready for common public as well with the development of digital chips, which can be used in mobiles and handsets. Release: It's just a matter of time Mr Misra has added that "Academic institutions doing ground verification and data calibration for NavIC to find its accuracy. For the technology to be used in in mobiles and other electronic gadgets the Space application centre have developed digital chips. The Indian Army Force (IAF) has already made receivers compatible with NavlC. The military service will supposedly use the positioning system to track aircrafts and deliver missiles. Future Uses India's own positioning system would aid in various things ranging from disaster management to terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation. For drivers on the road it will provide visual and voice navigation to help with directions. It can also be used with mobile phones like how GPS is used, and will help users with tracking and locating in unknown areas. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
Views: 15657 Exambin
8 Classical Dances of India UPSC, SSC | Bharatanatyam, Mohiniyattam, Kuchipudi, Kathak and more.
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about 8 Classical dances of India. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Indian Classical Dance: The Renaissance and Beyond ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2GX2Y1B http://fkrt.it/tpa4G2NNNN General Awareness: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Vocabulary Booster: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcWe4PMHJLQ7RZP8SRBrJOr4 In this session on Classical dances of India, We will be seeing about 8 classical dances of Indian that is mostly recognized. Classical dances of India UPSC, SSC are some of the competitive exams were questions on classical dances of India Bharatanatyam, classical dances of india mohiniyattam, classical dances of india kuchipudi, classical dances of india kathak are given importance out of the 8 classical dances of India. We will also see classical dance instrumental music which is top classical dance feature. classical dances videos are given for a pleasing visual learning. Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri, Mohiniyattam are the 8 types that we are going to see. Mridangam, Violin, Veena, Flute, Talam are some of the instruments used in the classical form of dances. Indian classical dance, otherwise known as Shastriya Nritya, is a term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles, whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra. The Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes eight forms of dances as classical. They are Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri and Mohiniyattam. These dances are traditionally regional, all of them include music and recitation in local language or Sanskrit, and they represent a unity of core ideas in a diversity of styles, costumes and expression. Bharatnatyam Bharatnatyam is one of the most popular classical Indian dances. Bharatnatyam is more popular in South Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Bharatnatyam dance is almost 2,000 years old. It is believed that Bharatnatyam was revealed by Lord Brahma to Bharata, a famous sage who then codified this sacred dance in a Sanskrit text called the Natya Shastra. The Natya Shastra is one of the fundamental treatises on Indian drama and aesthetics. INSTRUMENTS USE IN BHARATNATYAM Mridangam, Violin, Veena, Flute and Talam (Nattuvangam/ cymbals) Famous Dancers Rukmini Devi, Padma Subramanyam, Alarmel Valli, Yamini Krishnamurthy, Anita Ratnam, Mallika Sarabhai, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai. Kathak Kathak is one of the most important classical dances of India. Kathak is said to be derived from the word katha, meaning "the art of storytelling." . INSTRUMENTS USE IN KATHAK Pakhawaj, Tabla, Harmonium , Sarangi and Talam(cymbals) Famous Dancers Pandit Birju Maharaj, Sitara Devi, Shovana Narayan, Malabika Mitra, Kumudini Lakhia, Manisha Gulyani, Kathakali Kathakali is the classical dance form of Kerala. The word Kathakali literally means "Story-Play". INSTRUMENTS USE IN KATHAKALI Chenda, Maddalam, Cymbals and Elathalam Famous Dancers Kalamandalam Gopi, Padmanabhan Nair, Ramankutty Nair and Kumaran Nair Kuchipudi Kuchipudi is one of the classical dance forms of the South India. Kuchipudi derives its name from the Kuchipudi village of Andhra Pradesh. INSTRUMENTS USE IN KUCHIPUDI Mridangam, Violin, Veena, Flute and Talam (Nattuvangam/ cymbals) Famous Dancers Raja and Radha Reddy, Kaushalya Reddy, Yamini Reddy, Bhavana Reddy Manipuri Manipuri is one of the eight major classical dances of India. Manipuri dance is indigenous to Manipur, the North-eastern state of India. The Manipuri dance style is inextricably woven into the life pattern of Manipuri people. The Manipuri dance form is mostly ritualistic and draws heavily from the rich culture of the state of Manipur. INSTRUMENTS USE IN MANIPURI Pung and cymbals Famous Dancers Guru Bipin Singh, Darshana Jhaveri, Ranjana, Charu Mathur Mohiniattam INSTRUMENTS USE IN MOHINIATTYAM Chenda, Maddalam, Cymbals and Ela taalam. Famous Dancers Sunanda Nair, Jayaprabha Menon, Pallavi Krishnan, Gopika Varma, Vijayalakshmi, Smitha Rajan Odissi Odissi is one of the famous classical Indian dances from Orissa state. INSTRUMENTS USE IN ODDISI Pakwaj, tabla, harmonium, flute and cymbals. Famous Dancers Kelucharan Mohapatra, Deba Prasad Das, Pankaj Charan Das and Gangadhar Pradhan, Aditi Bandyopadhyay, Sattriya Sattras are the Vaishnava monasteries in Assam. INSTRUMENTS USE IN SATTRIYA Violin,cymbals and Khol (Drum). Famous Dancers Guru Indira P.P Bora., Jatin Goswami, Anita Sharma Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps
Views: 195757 Exambin
Top 10 Rivers of India | Longest rivers of India with Origin and End.
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Top 10 Rivers of India. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Rivers of India ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2IQAv3u http://fkrt.it/g3bNdLuuuN Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn Hello Friends, In this video we are going to see Top Indian Rivers that flow in India. Rivers of India plays vital role in Indian Economy and Agriculture. Rivers in India mostly originates in Himalayas. River pollution in India is increasing nowadays including Ganga river pollution. The list of rivers in India is large but we will see only the top here. We are not going to look in to ganges river pollution and all now, we just stick to our topic Longest rivers in India which will establish you the makor rivers of india. Everyone knows largest river of india or longest river of india but do you know what is second largest river in india or second longest river in Indiahere we tell you that. In recent times river cruises in india has making awareness to public. All competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, Banks Exams also ask one or two question based on rivers. We discussed the below: Rivers of india and cities Rivers of india origin and end Rivers of india geography Rivers have always played an important role in civilization. Almost all of the ancient civilizations developed along the rivers. The reasons were many – for example Food from Hunting, water availability, Transportation through the natural riverways. Even in current times rivers play a major role, we even started getting electricity from the big rivers. India is a country with huge dependence on agriculture, which contribute a major part in the country’s GDP and employ about 49% workforce of the country. Rivers play an important role in irrigation and provide sufficient amount of water required for growing crops.   Ganga – The Longest River of India The Ganga or the Ganges (in English) is the longest river in India. The river is originates from Gangothri and ends in Bay of Bengal . Historically too the river Ganga played an important role. Many of the former imperial capitals such as Pataliputra, Kashi, Kannauj and Kara were located on its banks. It is used for irrigation from ancient times. Godavari The river Godavari is originates from Nasik Hills and ends in Bay of Bengal . River Godavari is the second longest river in India. The total length of the river is 1,465 km. It flows from Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka and finally empties at Bay of Bengal. 3 River Krishna River Krishna is the third longest river in India. It originates from the state of Maharashtra (Mahabaleshwar) and ends at the Bay of Bengal. Maharastra & Andhrapradesh are the states benefitting from this river. The total length of the river is 1400 km. 4 Yamuna River Yamuna river’s beauty can be seen in Agra just behind the beautiful Taj Mahal. The river is the fourth longest river in India with length 1370 km. It originates in Yamunotri in Garwhall flows from Haryana, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh and end in the Bay of Bengal. Narmada River One of the most sacred rivers of Hindus, river Narmada originates from Amarkantak hill in Madhya Pradesh flows through MP and Maharashtra, ultimately ending in the Arabian sea. The length of the river is 1312 km. 6 Indus River – Indus river is the Longest River in Asia and Sixth in India. The river Indus is originates In Tibet Kalish Range and ends in Arabian sea . Therefore, it is the sixth largest river in India. Indus river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit-Baltistan. 7 Mahanadi River The river Mahanadi is originates from Amarkantak Plateau and ends in Bay of Bengal. Mahanadi passes from three states Jharkand, Chattisgarh and Orissa. It is one of the longest rivers in India and one of the most important in East Central India. The length of Mahanadi river is 858 km. Kaveri River Kaveri is the lifeline of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The two states have been even fighting for it from ancient times. It originates from the Kodagu hills of Karnataka flows from Karnataka and TN and ends in the Bay of Bengal. The length of Kaveri river is 805 km. Brahmaputra The river Brahmaputra is originates from Chinese Lake Manasarovar and ends in Bay of Bengal . as River Ranga, Tapi River The river Tapi is originates from Bettul and ends in Arabian sea . The length of the River is 724 km. The River flows in the central India and Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra are the two states benefitting from this river. It is one of the 3 rivers in India that run from east to west – the others are Narmada River and the Mahi River. There are many other rivers in India apart from this. Name the biggest river that flows in your state below in comments.
Views: 241028 Exambin
Prehistoric Cave Paintings in India | Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Chalcolithic Paintings in India
 
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General Awareness: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Vocabulary Booster: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcWe4PMHJLQ7RZP8SRBrJOr4 IN this session, we are going to learn about the prehistoric rock paintings in India. We will be looking at some important rock paintings. Cave paintings in India can be found in many places like MP, TN. History of cave paintings is more than a lakh years old. Famous cave paintings is discussed here. Prehistoric rock paintings in India are examples of Indian old arts. Historic arts represented in Historic cave paintings. Before getting started, let us know whether this series of videos is helpful to you or not in the comments below. The distant past when there was no paper or language or the written word, and hence no books or written document, is called as the Prehistoric period. Piecing together of information deduced from old tools, habitat, bones of both animals and human beings and drawings on the cave walls scholars have constructed fairly accurate knowledge about what happened and how people lived in prehistoric times. Paintings and drawings were the oldest art forms practised by human beings to express themselves using the cave wall as their canvas. • Period I, Upper Palaeolithic; • Period II, Mesolithic; • Period III, Chalcolithic. Paleolithic Age Art • The Paleolithic period can be divided into three phases: (1) Lower Palaeolithic (2.5 million years-100,000 years ago) (2) Middle Palaeolithic (300,000-30,000 years ago) (3) Upper Palaeolithic (40,000-10,000 years ago) • We did not get any evidence of paintings from lower or middle paleolithic age yet. • In the Upper Palaeolithic period, we see a proliferation of artistic activities. • Subjects of early works confined to simple human figures, human activities, geometric designs, and symbols. • First discovery of rock paintings in the world was made in India (1867-68) by an Archaeologist, Archibold Carlleyle, twelve years before the discovery of Altamira in Spain (site of oldest rock paintings in the world). • There are two major sites of excellent prehistoric paintings in India: (1) Bhimbetka Caves, Foothills of Vindhya, Madhya Pradesh. (2) Jogimara caves, Amarnath, Madhya Pradesh. Mesolithic period Art: • The largest number of paintings belongs to this period. • Themes multiply but the paintings are small in size. • Hunting scenes predominate • Hunters in groups armed with barbed spears pointed sticks, arrows, and bows. • Trap and snares used to catch animals can be seen in some paintings. • In some pictures, animals are chasing men and in others, they are being chased by hunter men. • Animals painted in a naturalistic style and humans were depicted in a stylistic manner. • Women are painted both in nude and clothed. • Young and old equally find places in paintings. • Community dances provide a common theme. • Sort of family life can be seen in some paintings (woman, man, and children). Chalcolithic period Art: • Copper age art. • The paintings of this period reveal the association, contact and mutual exchange of requirements of the cave dwellers of this area with settled agricultural communities of the Malwa Plateau. • Pottery and metal tools can be seen in paintings. • Similarities with rock paintings: Common motifs (designs/patterns like cross-hatched squares, lattices etc) • The difference with rock paintings: Vividness and vitality of older periods disappear from these paintings. Some of the general features of Prehistoric paintings (based on the study of Bhimbetka paintings) • Used colours, including various shades of white, yellow, orange, red ochre, purple, brown, green and black. • But white and red were their favourite. • The paints used by these people were made by grinding various coloured rocks. • They got red from hematite (Geru in India). • Green prepared from a green coloured rock called Chalcedony. • White was probably from Limestone. • Some sticky substances such as animal fat or gum or resin from trees may be used while mixing rock powder with water. • Brushes were made of plant fiber. • It is believed that these colours remained thousands of years because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present on the surface of rocks. • Paintings were found both from occupied and unoccupied caves. • It means that these paintings were sometimes used also as some sort of signals, warnings etc. • Many rock art sites of the new painting are painted on top of an older painting. • In Bhimbetka, we can see nearly 20 layers of paintings, one on top of another. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
Views: 9434 Exambin
Introduction to Indian Cultural Heritage –Indian Culture and Tradition | General Awareness Series
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Intro to Indian Culture & Hertiage. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Indian Heritage, Art and Culture ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2IPKm9L http://fkrt.it/tsEBS2NNNN Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this lesson you will be knowing about Indian culture documentary. Indian culture and tradition is long back cherished among the globe. This Indian culture and tradition documentary is prepared by keeping topics like Indian culture upsc, Indian culture ssc. This is being the introduction to Indian culture, Indian tradition and culture. More of these Indian tradition and culture essay type and Indian culture for upsc will be followed. Indian culture lecture for ias, Indian culture lecture ias are some of the frequest sections questions arised in Indian cultural heritage section in UPSC exams. In this series of videos we will be knowing the importance of culture and its brief overlook. In the first session we will be knowing gist of everything.. All of these topics will be covered in the upcoming videos. Comment which one you want to see first in the series of videos, More than 1.3 billion people live in Indian sub-continent. India is a land of many cultural livings, “Unity through Diversity” is the main attraction to India by many of the foreign countries. Like USA, India is also a Federal Union where almost all of its states carries different Language, different cultural identities. That is why it is known as a sub-continent.  Indian civilization is ancient  The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the first civilizations on earth  The Vedic period was a time in Indian history when the Hindu religion and caste system began in India  Mughal Empire was the last and the strongest Islamic empire in India Here in India we see people in,  People with different clothing  People with different religions  People with different foods  People with different celebrations  People living in different localities like Urban, Semi-urban, Rural India is mainly classified into four major sections 1. North India : New Delhi 2. Eastern India : Kolkata 3. Western India : Mumbai 4. South India : Chennai Indian people across the nation eat different food as per their geographical availability.  Vegetables  Seafood  Meat-however, cows are considered sacred by Hindus, many of whom are vegetarian  Masala-spices  Rice  Tea, Coffee Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. The Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. With this people in India also follows Christianity, Islam also. Important Historical Monuments in India India is home to many historical monuments such as Taj Mahal, Brihadishwara Temple, Mysore Palace, Harmandir Sahib, Ajanta Ellora Caves, Mahabalipuram, Khajuraho and the list is a long one. We will see about this in a separate video. Traditional Music of India Hindustani and Carnatic are popularly known traditional music of India. Hindustani means classical music of North India Carnatic means classical music of South India Melody, Drone, Thala are some of the traditional elements of Indian Music. String, Wind, Percussion are some of the most commonly used Instruments in India. Traditional Dances of India Dance is an ancient and celebrated cultural tradition in India. Folk dances abound all across the country, and huge crowds of people can be found dancing at festivals and weddings. Dance and song features heavily in Indian cinema too. Indian dance draw its roots from six of the most important classical dance forms. They are: Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak, Manipuri, Kuchipudi, Odissi. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
Views: 125611 Exambin
Indian Paintings types | Cave Painting, Miniature Painting, Indian Paintings IAS UPSC lesson
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Indian Painting types. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: The Spirit of Indian Painting: ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2IRfhOS http://fkrt.it/tJfl32NNNN Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn Indian Paintings The tradition of painting has been carried on in the Indian subcontinent since the ancient times. Standing as a testimony to this fact are the beautiful paintings of Ajanta and Ellora, Buddhist palm leaf manuscripts, Mughal and Kangra schools of miniature Indian paintings, etc. Infact, records have been found that indicate the usage of paintings for decorating the doorways, guest rooms, etc. Some traditional Indian paintings, like those of Ajanta, Bagh and Sittanvasal, depict a love for nature and its forces. Cave Painting Cave paintings of India date back to the prehistoric times. The finest examples of these paintings comprise of the paintings of Ajanta, Ellora, Bagh, Sittanavasal, etc, which reflect an emphasis on naturalism. Ancient cave paintings of India serve as a window to our ancestors, who used to inhabit these caves. Madhubani Painting Madhubani painting originated in a small village, known as Maithili, of the Bihar state of India. Initially, the womenfolk of the village drew the paintings on the walls of their home, as an illustration of their thoughts, hopes and dreams. Miniature Painting Miniatures paintings are beautiful handmade paintings, which are quite colorful but small in size. The highlight of these paintings is the complex and delicate brushwork, which lends them a unique identity. The colors are handmade, from minerals, vegetables, precious stones, indigo, conch shells, pure gold and silver. The most common theme of the Miniature painting of India comprises of the Ragas i.e., the musical codes of Indian classical music. Mughal Painting Mughal painting reflects an exclusive combination of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. As the name suggests, these paintings evolved as well as developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India, between 16th century and 19th century. The Mughal paintings of India revolved around themes, like battles, court scenes, receptions, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, portraits, etc. The Victoria and Albert Museums of London house a large and impressive collection of Mughal paintings. Mysore Painting Mysore Painting is a form of classical South Indian painting, which evolved in the Mysore city of Karnataka. During that time, Mysore was under the reign of the Wodeyars and it was under their patronage that this school of painting reached its zenith. Quite similar to the Tanjore Paintings, Mysore Paintings of India make use of thinner gold leaves and require much more hard work. The most popular themes of these paintings include Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. The grace, beauty and complexity of Indian Mysore Paintings leave the onlookers mesmerized. Pahari Painting Pahari painting is the name given to Rajput paintings, made in the in the Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir states of India. These painting developed as well as flourished during the period of 17th to 19th century. Indian Pahadi paintings have been done mostly in miniature forms. Rajput Painting Rajput painting originated in the royal states of Rajasthan, somewhere around the late 16th and early 17th century. The Mughals ruled almost all the princely states of Rajasthan at that time and because of this; most of the schools of Rajput Painting in India reflect strong Mughal influence. Each of the Rajput kingdoms evolved a distinctive style. However, similarities and common features can still be found in the paintings of different territories. Tanjore Painting Tanjore Painting is one of the most popular forms of classical South Indian painting. It is the native art form of Thanjavur (also known as Tanjore) city of Tamil Nadu. The dense composition, surface richness and vibrant colors of Indian Thanjavur Paintings distinguish them from the other types of paintings. Then, there are additions of semi-precious stones, pearls and glass pieces that further add to their appeal. The relief work gives them a three dimensional effect. Tanjore Painting of India originated during the 16th century, under the reign of the Cholas. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Views: 41948 Exambin
Battle of Plassey and Buxar || Modern Indian History UPSC ||
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about battle of plassey and buxar. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: AN ERA OF DARKNESS ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2IQazoG Flipkart : http://fkrt.it/gWG!0LuuuN Part – https://youtu.be/0PJdZm1IN-Q?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcU7JE3YXkjXpgWrLdlqb2fc Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the fourth session on Indian history here we are going to see about Battle of Plassey and Buxar, which will be helpful Modern Indian History UPSC Battle of Plassey Battle fought Year: 23 June 1757 Battlefield: Plassey Winner: British under Clive Loser: Siraj ud-Daulah The Battle of Plassey was fought between the British East India Company and Siraj-ud-Daulah (Nawab of Bengal). Siraj-ud-Daulah was supported by the French. The battle took place on June 23, 1757. The victory of British East India company in the battle is one of the most important event in Indian History. • The East India Company had established factories at Surat, Madras, Bombay and Calcutta in the 17th century. • Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar had issued a Farman in 1717 granting the Company rights to reside and trade freely within the Mughal Empire. The Company was also accorded the right to issue dastaks for movement of goods. This right was misused by the Company officials. • When Alivardi Khan, grandfather of Siraj-ud-daulah became the Nawab of Bengal, he took a stricter stance against the Company. • When Siraj succeeded him as the Nawab, he ordered the company to stop their fortification activities since they didn’t have the permission to do so. But the company carried on with their fortifications. • This led the Nawab to attack the British station in Calcutta in which they were beaten by the Nawab’s 3000-strong army. • Calcutta was occupied by the Nawab’s forces in June 1756 and the prisoners were kept in a dungeon in Fort William. This incident is called the Black Hole of Calcutta since only a handful of the prisoners survived the captivity where over hundred people were kept in a cell meant for about 6 people. • Fort William and other British establishments in Calcutta had fallen into the hands of the Nawab. • When news of this reached Madras in August, they sent troops under Colonel Robert Clive to win back the Bengal establishments of the British. On the bank of the river Bhagirathi, in the mango groves of a place named Plassey, the opposite forces met each other.The date was the 23rd of June in the year 1757. On that day was fought the Battle of Plassey between the armies of Siraj-ud-daulah and Clive. There could be no comparison between the respective forces of the enemies. Because, the Nawab’s army contained 50,000 infantry and 28,000 cavalry. Clive’s army consisted of only 3,000 men, including English soldiers and Indian sepoys. fought desperately on behalf of the Nawab were the Hindu General Mohan Lal and the Muslim General Mir Madan. When Mir Madan fell dead on the field, the Nawab lost courage. But Mohan Lal continued to fight with heroic determination. to send order to Mohan Lai to stop fighting. The dumbfounded Nawab sent that order to the fighting general. But Mohan Lal considered it a wrong order and continued to fight, Mohan Lal at length returned to Siraj. That was exactly what Mir Jafar wanted.When the fighting soldiers saw their leader withdrawing from the front, they lost heart and fled in all directions. In a moment’s time, the course of the battle turned for the worst. The Nawab realized his mistake. He could also know what Mir Jafar was. Amid terrible attack from Clive’s side, and with his army in panic, Siraj-ud-daulah fled from the field for life. With that ended the Battle of Plassey. With that, too, was decided the fate of Bengal and of India.In the mango groves of Plassey was laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. exams will ask questions based on modern history of india for indian history for upsc, Battle of Buxar Battle fought Year: 22 October 1764 Battlefield: Buxar Winner: Sir Hector Munro commander of British forces Loser: Nawab Mir Qasim, Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Daula The Battle of Buxar was fought between the British Army and the combined forces of Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, Mir Qasim (Nawab of Bengal) and Shuja-ud-daula (Nawab of Awadh). The British East India Company had defeated the combined forces in the battle. The battle took place on 22nd October, 1764. The battle took place at Buxar. At that time Buxar was within the territories of Bengal. Mir Qasim fled to Oudh after losing to the British at the Battles of Katwa, Gina and Udaynala. There he joined forces with Shuja-¬ud-daulah, the Nawab of Oudh, and with Shah Alam II, the Emperor of Delhi, and fought the British at the Battle of Buxar on 22 October 1764. The combined Indian army lost the battle.
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Vocabulary Episode 1 | Cruel, Scourge, Intensive, Anonymous, Abandon | THE HINDU Editorial Words
 
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Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates Today's words are taken from THE HINDU's Editorial. Words discussed are: 1.Cruel 2.Scourage 3.Intensive 4. Anonymous 5. Abandon In this videos we have presented the above selected english words for learning by example sentences. This will be useful for IELTS, TOEFL, IBPS, SSC CGL, SBI and most other competitive exams. English speaking is not a science it is only an art of learning words by improving your vocabulary with rich new words you can easily speak english with new set of words. All the words discussed are given with meaning of the words and synonym, antonym of the words. We take these words from The hindu editorial which is believed to be one of the best in terms of editorial words used in their articles. We must improve upon our English Vocabulary to enrich our knowledge in Spoken English as well as written English. Though British English and American English differences in accent, words from basic english to advanced english are mostly similar with some spelling variations. Attending to English classes online will be helpful to improve basic english listening, english reading. Our videos are Prepared by selecting editorial words from the hindu editorial. We frame a few example sentences after providing synonyms with basic general meaning for the word and antonyms that is opposite words to the word taken from the editorial. We also plan to introcude Idioms and Phrases in the future. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin
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Arrival of Europeans to India | Why Europeans arrived to India | Foundation of British Empire in Ind
 
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Download our app : http://examb.in/app First European contacts. In 1497, the Portuguese king Manuel I sent the navigator Vasco da Gama to find a sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Da Gama reached the port of Calicut on the Malabar coast on June 18, 1498, and his fleet returned to Lisbon, Portugal, in 1499. The Venetians were Europe's main traders in Asian spices, which they bought in Egypt.The Portuguese set up a trading empire in the Indian Ocean, capturing and fortifying all the leading trading ports. They controlled the major sea routes between India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. The Portuguese made Goa their capital in India. The city became an important European settlement. The Portuguese supremacy in the Indian Ocean lasted for just over a hundred years. East India companies. The British East India Company was founded in 1600. The Dutch East India Company was formally incorporated two years later, although the Dutch merchants of Amsterdam had been trading in the Indian Ocean as early as 1595. The arrival of the British and the Dutch in India was unwelcome to the Portuguese, who tried to keep control of the Asian trade. The British East India Company, by contrast, was much weaker. In the 1600's it acquired three independent sovereign settlements in India, Madras (now Chennai), Bombay (now Mumbai), and Calcutta (now Kolkata), and each grew into substantial trading ports. The ports were all fortified with sea walls and cannon. The British company, like the Dutch, raised a small army of professional soldiers. After 1700, the British East India Company was strong enough to equip a large number of well-armed ships for trading in the Indian Ocean. Rivalry between Britain and France. In the 1720's the French government granted a charter to a French East India Company to trade with India. The French made their headquarters at Pondicherry in southern India. Within 20 years or so the French had become very powerful in India and were competing successfully with the British. The commercial competition between the two companies soon led to political quarrels. In the 1740's the French and British supported rival Indian rulers in internal wars. In 1755 an unexpected blow fell on the British East India Company. The Muslim nawab of Bengal province, Siraj al-Daulah, disagreed with the company over commercial privileges claimed by the British. The nawab led an army against Calcutta, and captured the city. suffocation and heat. The exact number of deaths is disputed, but the so-called Black Hole of Calcutta incident further worsened relations between British and Indians. When the news of the fall of Calcutta reached Madras, the British sent Colonel Robert Clive to Bengal to regain Calcutta. He was also a skilful politician. Clive not only recovered Calcutta, but also led the company's troops to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Siraj al-Daulah was replaced by a puppet ruler, Foundation of the British Empire in India. Historians regard the year 1757 as the starting point of the British Empire in India, even though large parts of the country remained under the rule of Indian princes. Growth of the East India Company. By 1765, the East India Company had decided to set aside the nominal Mughal governor of Bengal province, the nawab. The company itself became the dewan, or financial controller, holding its office under a farman (proclamation) granted by the Mughal emperor in Delhi. Bengal's prosperous rice agriculture yielded enormous tax revenues to the East India Company. This financial advantage helped the company to raise a large army of professional Indian soldiers, trained and commanded by British officers. From 1772, under the company's first governor general of Bengal, Warren Hastings, the British began to expand toward northern India. Hastings was a skilful diplomat and politician. He contributed much to the success of the East India Company's government in Bengal. But his use of violent methods to suppress Indian opposition, and his treatment of fellow British officials in India, aroused great anger in Britain. Reform of company administration. These corrupt administrative practices were ended by Lord Cornwallis, who was appointed governor general of India in 1786. The British Parliament had passed Acts in 1773 and in 1784 to bring the East India Company under the control of a British government minister. Lord Cornwallis was given the task of reforming British administration in India and of establishing good relations with the Indian princes.
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Top 10 Biosphere Reserves in India UNDESCO list | Biosphere Reserves in a nutshell
 
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Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this lesson you will be knowing about biosphere reserves in India. biosphere in India created to protect endangering animals and species. biosphere reserve is often asked as questions in upsc like exams. We have given Biosphere serves in india map, biosphere reserves vs national parks difference is not discussed although you can watch both the videos to get the core differences. Biosphere reserves definition is “Biosphere reserves are areas comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. Each reserve promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use.”. We will see biosphere reserves in a nutshell, and about in brief on biosphere reserves in unesco list. There are 18 such in list of all biosphere reserves in india. But we will only see 10 biosphere reserves in india out of 18 biosphere reserves in india. As importance of biosphere reserves increases biosphere reserve zones are protected to grow flora and fauna in Indian Biosphere Reserves in UNDESCO list. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 1-Aug-1986 • State: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala • Coverage: Parts of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Mudumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills • Area: 5,520 km2 • Key Fauna: Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed macaque Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 18-Feb-1989 • State: Tamil Nadu • Coverage: Rameswaram in the north to Kanyakumari in the south • Area: 10,500 • Key Fauna: Dugong or Sea Cow Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 29-Mar-1989 • State: West Bengal • Coverage: Parts of delta of Ganges & Brahamaputra river • Area: 9,630 • Key Fauna: Royal Bengal Tiger Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 18-Jan-1988 • State: Uttarakhand • Coverage: Parts of Chamoli, Pithoragarh and Almora districts in Uttarakhand • Area: 5,860 • Key Fauna: Himalayan Snow Leopard Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 1-Sep-1988 • State: Meghalaya • Coverage: Parts of East, West and South Garo Hill districts • Area: 820 • Key Fauna: Red Panda Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 03-Mar-1999 • State: Madhya Pradesh • Coverage: Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chhindwara • Area: 4,981 • Key Fauna: Giant Squirrel, Flying Squirrel Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 21-Jun-1994 • State: Odisha • Coverage: Parts of Mayurbhanj district • Area: 4,374 • Key Fauna: Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger, Wild Elephant Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 06-Jan-1989 • State: Andaman and Nicobar Islands • Coverage: Southernmost islands of Andaman & Nicobar • Area: 885 • Key Fauna: Saltwater Crocodile Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 30-Mar-2005 • State: Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh • Coverage: Parts of Anuppur and Dindori district and Bilaspur district • Area: 3,835 • Key Fauna: Leopards, gaur, chital Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve Highlights: • Year of Establishment: 12-Nov-2001 • State: Tamil Nadu, Kerala • Coverage: Parts of Thirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts and Thiruvanthapuram, Kollam, and Pathanmthitta districts • Area: 3,500 • Key Fauna: Nilgiri Tahr, Elephants Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
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(Part I) Indian Physical Geography - The Northern Mountains (Himalayas) and The Northern plains
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Indian geography part 1 Indian Physical Geography – The Northern Mountains (Himalayas) India can be divided into 6 major physical divisions  The Northern Mountains ( himalayan geography )  The North Indian Plain ( northern plains of india )  The Peninsular Plateau  Great Indian Desert  The coastal Regions  Islands The session on indian geography lecture for ias in english will be useful for indian physical geography upsc questions and indian physical geography ssc questions. ________________________________________  The Himalayan Mountains form the northern mountain region of India.  They are the highest mountain ranges in the world.  These mountain ranges start from Pamir Knot in the west and extend up to Purvanchal in the east.  Himalayas are the Youngest & Loftiest mountain range of the world  Formed by Tectonic Forces and it ranges upto 2400 Km in Length  Are of varying width → from 400 Km in Kashmir to 160 Km Arunachal Pradesh  Altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern part than in the western part  Prominent Features → Highest peaks, Deep valleys & Gorges, Glaciers etc. Indian physical features are discussed in brief in the session. The Himalayan Mountains can be further divided into 4 major ranges - Trans Himalayas  Immediate to the north of the Great Himalayan Range  Most of the part of this Himalayan range lies in the Tibet and hence also called Tibetan Himalaya  Ranges → Zaskar, K2 (Godwin Austin), Ladakh, Kailash and Karakoram Range Greater Himalaya (Inner Himalaya)  Always covered with snow → Known as Himadri  Average height → 6000 mts  Most continuous range  Core composed of granite  Ranges → Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga  Forests type → Needle leaved coniferous Middle Himalaya  Average height → 3500 – 4500 mts  Most of the valleys & hill stations are located in this range e.g. Kashmir, Kathmandu , Nainital  Ranges → Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar, Mahabharat ________________________________________ Eastern hills / Purvanchal  Brahmaputra marks the eastern border of the Himalayas.  Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply towards south and form the Eastern hills or Purvanchal which run through the NE India & are mostly composed of sandstones  These hills comprises of Mishmi hills, Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipuri Hills and Mizo Hills Classification of Himalayas on the basis of Geographic Location  Punjab Himalayas / Kashmir Himalaya / Himachal Himalaya → Between the Indus and Sutlej  Kumaon Himalayas → Between Sutlej and Kali rivers  Nepal Himalayas → Between Kali and Tista rivers  Assam Himalayas → Between Tista and Dihang rivers ________________________________________ Significance of Himalayas for India Strategic significance Acts as a natural frontier of India with other countries (China, Pakistan, Afghanistan) Climatic significance Prevent further northward movement of summer monsoon and also prevent cold northern winds from Siberia to enter into India   Indian Physical Geography – The Northern Indian Plains The North Indian Plain  Formed by depositional work of Rivers viz. Indus, Ganga & Brahamputra  2400 km long & varying in width from 240 to approx. 320 km  Divided into three sections, viz. the Punjab Plain (Indus), the Ganga Plain and the Brahmaputra Plain Punjab Plains Formed by the Indus and its tributaries with major portion of this plains in Pakistan ________________________________________ Northern plains subdivisions Bhabhar  Lies along foothills of Shiwaliks, From Indus to Tista  Laid down by streams coming from hills  Comprises of pebble studded rocks (Highly porous bed plain)  Due to high porosity, streams disappears here Tarai  Lies south of Bhabhar & runs parallel to it  Marked by re-emergence of underground streams of Bhabhar belt  Highly alluvial & agricultural land  Has a high water table due to groundwater percolating down from the adjacent zone Khadar  Flood plains with newer alluvium deposited by flood almost every year  Soil of this region is locally known as kankar viz. calcareous concretions With this we have come to the end of the session on indian geography lecture in english. We have seen the two important divisions of Indian Physical Geography. We will be seeing the rest of the divisions in our next video by next week. Thank you for watching till the end. Subscribe to our channel and click on the bell icon to get regular updates.
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The Anglo Mysore Wars I British Conquest of Mysore
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the fifth session on Indian history here we are going to see about anglo mysore wars IAS/UPSC lecture which will be helpful Modern Indian History UPSC First Anglo Mysore War (1767-69): The First Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars. A tripartite alliance was formed against Haider Ali by the Britishers, the Nizam Ali of Hyderabad and the Marathas. Haider Ali bought Marathas and succeeded in breaking the alliance and alluring the Nizam with territorial gains. Together with the Nizam he launched an attack on Arcot and later on the English by appearing at the gates of Madras. The panic-stricken Madras government signed the Treaty of Madras on 4th April 1769, under which basis was mutual restitutition of each other’s territories and a defensive alliance, where the English committed to help Haider in case he was attacked by another power. The Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-84): Mutual distrust between the English and Haider Ali caused the Second Anglo Mysore War. Haider Ali accused the Company of not observing the terms of the defensive treaty when they refused to help him when the Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771. Furthermore, Haider Ali was helped by the French by meeting his military demands. On international front, the outbreak of the American war of independence where French alliance with the American colonists was evident. These developments made Warren Hastings extremely suspicious of Haider Ali’s relations with the French. The , a French settlement which was within Haider’s protection. This led to the formation of an alliance by Haider Ali with the Hyderabad Nizam and the Marathas against the English Company in 1779. The second Anglo Mysore War began in July 1780, when Haider attacked the Carnatic and captured Arcot by defeating an English army under Colonel Baillie. Meanwhile the English, detached the Marathas and Nizam from Haider’s side. After being deserted, Haider was defeated at Porto Novo in 1781. In 1782, Haider died, leaving the task unfinished for his son, Tipu, who continued the war with English for another year. The war ended with the Treaty of Mangalore (March 1784) on the basis of mutual restitution of each other’s territories was agreed. The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92): The third Anglo Mysore War was caused by an attack on Travancore by Tipu, because he had differences with the Raja of Travancore in 1790. The English declared war against Tipu supporting the ruler of Travancore. They were helped by the Maratha and Nizam’s troops under the English army which was led by Cornwallis and marched towards Seringapatam (1792). Tipu offered tough resistance but eventually signed the Treaty of Seringapatam in March 1792 resulting in the surrender of nearly half of Mysore territory to the victorious allies in Third Anglo Mysore War. Tipu also had to pay a war indemnity of over three crores rupees. • The British hence acquired the areas of Baramahal, Dindigul and Malabar • The Marathas gained territory on the Tungabhadra side • The Nizam acquired territories stretching from river Krishna to beyond the Pennar. The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799): The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99. Under Wellesley, the Governor-General of English, it was demanded that Tipu Sultan give up his friendship with the French. In the Fourth War between Anglo-Mysore. Tipu Sultan died. English fought with the Marathas and the Nizam’s support in battlefield along with their own forces from Madras and Bombay converging. In 1799, Seringapatam was taken and Tipu Sultan died fighting. Afterwards, Wellesley restored the Mysore kingdom to the old Wodeyar dynasty, after appropriating large portions of it for distribution among its allies Marathas, Nizam and the Company
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The Revolt of 1857 in India - Sepoy Mutiny - First war of Indian Independence
 
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The Revolt of 1857 in India The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India from 1857 –58 against the rule of the British East India Company Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, and India's First War of Independence. Causes of the Revolt: a. Political Causes: Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India till 1848-1856. Dalhousie through his policies had added considerable territories to the British Empire in India.The policy of annexation reached its climax when he implemented the policy of Doctrine of Lapse and annexed the Indian states on charges of miss-governance and absence of an heir. Dalhousie annexed Satara (1848), Sambhalpur (1850), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1853), Jaipur (1849). As part of the Doctrine of Lapse policy, the titles and pensions of some Indian princes were confiscated. b. Economic Causes:The British exploited the economic resources of India to their advantage. India turned into a colonial economy to serve the British capitalist interests. Heavy taxation, evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts that hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars. c. Social and Religious Causes:The social legislations on the evils as sati, infanticide, re-marriage of widows, etc. The introduction of English education, the propagation of the work of the Christian missionaries d. Military Causes:The high ranks in the army were exclusively reserved for the Englishmen The immediate cause of the revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle and the greased cartridge. In loading the rifle the sepoy before inserting the cartridge had to bite off its top. Mangal Pandey on 29th March 1857, killed senior officers on parade and started the revolt. Course and Spread of the Revolt: The revolt spread to Berhampur in Bengal. On 24th April 1857 about ninety men of the Native Cavalry stationed at Meerut refused to accept the greased cartridges. On 10th May the revolt started at Meerut and the mutineers after killing some of their officials marched towards Delhi. Delhi: On 12th May Delhi was seized and Bahadur Shah II was proclaimed the emperor of India. Kanpur: Here the revolt was led by Nana Saheb who declared himself the Peshwa and governor of Bahadur Shah. Tantya Tope did most of the fighting. Lucknow: The revolt was led by Hazrat Mahal, the Begum of Awadh Jhansi.After some initial vacillations, Rani Laxmi Bai assumed the leadership of the mutiny. Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself as the Nawab and led the revolt there. The other centers of the revolt were Banaras, Allahabad, Gwalior, and Nasirabad in Rajputana, Indore, Aligarh and Kota. At all these places the sepoys killed the senior officers and other Europeans, in many cases not even sparing women and children However the superior British forces soon suppressed the revolt. Bahadur Shah II proved to be a weak leader 20th September 1857 by John Nicholson. Bahadur Shah was arrested and deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. The rebels were defeated by General Havelock in Kanpur. At Jhansi Hugh Rose suppressed the revolt and Rani Laxmi Bai died on the battle field. Benaras, Bareilly and Gwalior were also recaptured by British officers. Causes of the Failure: • The revolt was highly localized and restricted to North India. • Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal provided active support to the British. • The rebels lacked a common cause and had different goals. Nature of the Revolt: Some call it a sepoy mutiny since the initial thrust of the revolt in the form of the cartridge episode was given by the soldiers. Nationalists as V.D. Savarkar opine that the revolt was the first war of independence. They feel that the revolt sparked off the discontent of the Indians towards the foreign rule and Hindus and Muslims participated equally in the revolt and displayed a new bond of unity against the British. Impact of the Revolt: (a) Policy Change: The Queen’s Proclamation of November 1858 announced the policy of the British government to be followed from now on in IndiaThe right of a ruler to adopt a child in the absence of a natural heir was accepted. (b) Administrative Changes:January 1st 1877 Queen Victoria was proclaimed as the Queen Empress of India and the administration of India was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown. (c) Reorganization of the Army:The army was re-organized to strengthen British control over the country and avert any further rebellions in future. (d) Communal and Racial Bitterness:The revolt of 1857 created a big gap between the different religious communities especially the Hindus and the Muslims as each blamed the other for its failure
Views: 20982 Exambin
Components of Computer System - An Introduction to CPU, I/O Devices  | Computer awareness - Lesson 4
 
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Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn Components of Computer System A computer performs five major functions no matter what size they are of as follows: • Data or Instructions are accepted as input, • Data and Instruction are stored • Processing of data as per the instructions, • Control of all operations inside the computer • Result in the form of output. Based on this Any computer system divided into four basic units; 1, input unit, 2, storage unit 3, central processing unit • Arithmetic logic unit • Control unit 4, output unit Basic Components of Computer Systems Input Unit Data and instructions must enter the computer system before any computation can be performed on the supplied data. Output Unit The job of an output unit is just the reverse of that of an input unit. It supplied information and results of computation to the outside world. Storage Unit The data and instructions that are entered into the computer system through input units have to be stored inside the computer before the actual processing starts.The Storage Unit or the primary / main storage of a computer system is designed to do all these things. Itprovides space for storing data and instructions, space for intermediate results and also space for the final results. Central Processing Unit (CPU) Central Processing Unit The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs “Arithmetic and Logical operations”. The control Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic unit of a computer system are jointly known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is the brain of any computer system. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) The arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) of a computer system is the place where the actual execution of the instructions take place during the processing operations. All calculations are performed and all comparisons (decisions) are made in the ALU. The data and instructions, stored in the primary storage prior to processing are transferred as and when needed to the ALU where processing takes place. No processing is done in the primary storage unit. Control Unit The control unit directs and controls the activities of the internal and external devices. It interprets the instructions fetched into the computer, determines what data, if any, are needed, where it is stored, where to store the results of the operation, and sends the control signals to the devices involved in the execution of the instructions. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Tribes of India 01 - Important tribes in India
 
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Tribes of India : A tribe is a social division in a traditional society consisting of families linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common culture and dialect. A tribe of india upsc possesses certain qualities and characteristics that make it a unique cultural, social, and political entity. They are also known by the name ‘Adivasis’ in India. The Constitution of India, Article 366 (25) defines Scheduled Tribes as “such tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to the scheduled Tribes (STs) for the purposes of this Constitution”. Common Features of Tribes • Geographical isolation : live in cloistered, exclusive, remote and inhospitable areas such as hills & forests • Shyness important tribes of india of contact : Have a marginal degree of contact with other cultures and people • Have distinctive culture, language and religion. List of Tribes in India The tribe that are found across the various important tribes for upsc parts of the country are as follows Bhils (derived from bow) • They are Divided into two main groups : Central or pure Bhils and Eastern or Rajput Bhils. • They speak Bhili, which is an Indo Aryan language. Munda ( means headman of the village) • They speak Mundari, which is an Austro- Asiatic language. • They remained hunters for centuries. But now they have been converted into the settled agriculturist. Santhals • They speak Santhali, which is a Austro- Asiatic language • They are engaged in hunting, fishing and cultivation for their livelihood Gonds • They speak Gondi language which is related to the Telgu and the other Dravidian languages. In the northern parts Gonds are often seen speaking the local Hindi. Khasi • They are called by the different names such as Khasi Pahris, Khuchia, Kassi, Khashi and Khasa • They speak Khasi-an Austro- Asiatic language. Baiga • They are the forest-dwelling aboriginals from central India • They do not interact with other tribal, believe in a hand-to-mouth existence. Birhor • This tribe is a Proto-Australoid tribe. Chenchus • This tribe is found at Nallamalai hills of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Odisha· Gaddis • They mainly dwell around Himachal Pradesh in the regions of Dhauladhar mountain range, Chamba, Bharmaur and the areas near to Dharamshala. Pangwal • They are the inhabitants of the Pangi valley of Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh. • They are mostly engaged in farming. Bhutia • They are also known as the Lachenpasand Lachungpas. • They are of the Tibetan origin and migrated to Sikkim around 16th century. Limbus/ Limboos • Mongoloid looking by figure having their own language, faith, costume, culture and life style. • They are farmers by profession. Lepchas • They are one of the indigenous tribe of Sikkim. • They call themselves Rongkup and their language is Lepcha. Buska • They are indigenous peoples in the Dehradun and Nainital in Kumaon region. • Major occupation are agriculture and animal husbandry. Apatani or Tanni • They are settled agriculturists inhabiting the valley around Ziro-the headquarters of Lower Subansiri district in Arunachal Pradesh. Adis/ Bokar Lhoba (meaning hill or mountain top) • This tribe is found in the region of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and are divided into two main such as Bogum and Bomis. Nyishis • They are Indo-Mongoloid group of people and their language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family. Kampti • They are a sub-group of the Shan people in Lohit district in Arunachal Pradesh. Tagin • They are main inhabitant of Upper Sunansiri district in Arunachal Pradesh. Their main occupation is agriculture. Angami • Tenyidie is the most common language spoken • Agriculture is the main occupation. Rengmas : • They are one of the seventeen major Naga Tribes located in Nagaland Sema /Sumi Nagas • They are one of the major tribes of Nagaland recognized for their martial art skills. Zeliang • They live primarily in the south-western part of Kohima district Konyak (means blackhead or human) • They are the largest out of 17 officially recognized tribes in Nagaland, • They are known as ‘those violent headhunters with tattooed faces.’ Garos • They are the second-largest tribe in Meghalaya and comprise about a third of the local population. Jaintias • They are traced in the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya. • They belong to the Proto Autroloid Monkhmer race Reang • They are the second largest tribal community of Tripura. • they are said to have first come from Shan State of upper Burma and belong to Indo-Mongoloid racial stock. Lushais • They belong to Kuki-Chin group of tribes in Tripura. • They live on Jhum Cultivation and hunting of wild animal. They are also famous as orange producing community
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Indian Physical Geography - The Indian Peninsular Plateaus
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Indian Physical Geography part 2 We have seen about The Northern Mountains, The North Indian Plain in the previous lesson on Indian Physiography. Now we will be looking about • The Peninsular Plateau • Great Indian Desert • The coastal Regions and the • Islands Subscribe to our channel and click on the bell icon to get latest episodes from exambin. This session on Indian Physical Geography - The Indian Peninsular Plateaus will be useful for the peninsular plateau upsc and the Great Indian Dessert The Peninsular Plateaus • Largest of India’s physical divisions – It Comprises of broad & shallow valleys with rounded hills • Triangular in shape; composed of the oldest rocks & Surrounded by hills • Narmada – Tapi divides it into 2 parts viz. Central highland & Deccan plateau Division of Peninsular Plateau The Central Highland The Deccan Plateau The Central Highlands • Lies to the north of the Narmada river between Aravali in North & Vindhya range in south • Covers the major portion of the Malwa plateau (Madhya Pradesh) • Rivers in this region flow from southwest to northeast; which indicates the slope of this region • Further extension of it is Bundelkhand, Bhaghelkhand & Chhota Nagpur Plateau • Chambal & Betwa flows through it → Region known as Bedland (Not fit for cultivation) Deccan Plateau • Largest plateau in India; Lies to the south of the Narmada River; Shaped as inverted triangle. • Surrounded by Satpura hills, Mahadeo hills, Maikala range, Amarkantak hills and Rajmahal hills in the north; Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east • Volcanic in origin, made up of horizontal layers of solidified lava forming trap structure with step like appearance • Sedimentary layers are also found in between the layers of solidified lava, making it inter-trapping in structure Western Ghats • Folded parts of Deccan Plateau • Also known as Shayadries • More Continuous & higher than Eastern Ghats • Separated from coast by narrow coastal plains • Rich watersheds give birth to large peninsular rivers like Godavari and Krishna • Extends from Tapi in North to Kanyakumari in south Important Hill Ranges • Nilgiri Range (Highest peak → Doda Betta along ooty (Udhagmandalam) → TN • Highest Peak of South India → Anaimudi From which 3 ranges radiates in 3 directions Eastern Ghats • Extends from Odisha to North of Nilgiri hills • Discontinuous & lower then Western Ghats • It is not giving birth to any important rivers like western ghats is giving. • Separated from coast by very wide coastal plains • Geologically older than western ghats Telangana Plateau Karnataka Plateau Dandakaranya Plateau Shillong Plateau The Great Indian Desert • Extends from the western margins of the Aravali Hills • Luni is the only prominent river The Coastal regions • Excluding the islands, the mainland of India has 6,100 kms length of coastline • Extends from Kutch in Gujarat in the west to the Gangetic delta in the east • The coast of India is divided into western coast and eastern coastal plains. Western Coastal Plains • Lies between Western Ghats & Arabian sea from Gujrat in north to Kanyakumari in south • Narrower & wetter than Eastern plains • Divided into Malabar coast, Kannada Coast, Konkan coast, Kanyakumari Coast, Kutch and Kathiawar peninsulas Eastern coastal Plains • Lies between Eastern Ghats & Bay of Bengal from Gangetic delta in north to Kanyakumari in south • Known as Land of Deltas viz. of Mahanadi, Krishna, Kaveri & Godavari • Broader but drier than Western plains • Consists of following sub coasts Indian Islands • Total 247 islands in India →204 islands in Bay of Bengal and 43 in the Arabian Sea • Few coral islands in the Gulf of Mannar also • Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal consist of hard volcanic rocks • The middle Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the largest islands of India • Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea are formed by corals • The southern – most point of India is in Nicobar Island, known as Indira Point • Formerly Indira point was called Pigmalion Point, it is submerged now, after 2004 Tsunami
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Top 10 National Park in India | General Awareness, Static GK series for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC
 
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Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this session, we are going to learn about National Parks in India. This will be useful in UPSC, SSC, Bank PO exams. National parks in India UPSC exam , National parks in India for ias. Important national parks in India are located National parks in india map in this video, Indian national parks tricks, Indian national parks list, indian national parks and wildlife sanctuaries are also covered in this video for 10 national parks. National Parks discussed here in this video are Jim Corbett National Park Sundarbans National Park Gir Forest National Park Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park Khangchendzonga National Park Namdapha National Park Gangotri National Park Simlipal National Park Desert National Park Hemis National Park ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Natural Vegetation of India I Natural vegetation of INDIA UPSC/IAS
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the fourth lesson on geography here we are going to see about natural vegetation of india lecture which will be helpful for your preparations with climate of natural vegetation of india UPSC/IAS Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time. So as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible. India is a land of great variety of natural vegetation. india climate Himalayan heights are marked with temperate vegetation; the Western Ghats and the Andaman Nicobar Islands have tropical rain forests, the deltaic regions have tropical forests and mangroves; physical divison the desert and semi desert areas of Rajasthan are known for cacti, a wide variety of bushes and thorny vegetation. On the basis of certain common features such as predominant vegetation type and climatic regions, Indian forests can be divided into the following groups: Types of Forests Tropical Evergreen Forests • Tropical evergreen forests have an Avg. Rainfall of 200 cm and Avg. temp. Of 24°C. • It is found at Hot & Humid areas of India like Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Eastern India. • Tropical deciduous forests are Tall & Dense with their height ranging from 45 – 60 mts. The Trees compete & rise high in wildflife to get sunlight • Ex. Rubber, Coconut, Ebony, Mahogany, Palms Tropical Deciduous Forests • Deciduous forests have an Avg. Rainfall of100 - 200 cm and their avg height is 25 – 45 mts. • They Shed their leaves in summers due to shortage of water which is a natural resources • It is Found at Shiwaliks, Ganga valley, Western Ghats, North Eastern India • They are Economically very important forests because we get majority of raw wood from these forests for Ex. Sal, Teak, Shisham, Sandalwood, Deodar, Mahua Tropical dry Forests • Tropical dry forests have an Avg. Rainfall of 50 to 100 cm and they are Less dense & their size ranges from 6 – 9 mts, • Their Roots are thick & long to use underground water and the Thick Bark prevents undue evaporation • They are Found in Punjab, Haryana, MP, Eastern Rajasthan, Central Deccan Plateau • Most of the areas are used for agriculture Arid or Desert Forests • Desert forest has an Avg. Rainfall of less than 50 cm. • Prominent features of desert forests are Small leaves, Thick Bark, Long Roots • Indian wild date is common in these deserts • It is Found at Western Rajasthan, South West Haryana, Punjab, and In some parts of Gujrat • Ex. Small sized kikar, Babul, Acacia, Bushes & Shrubs Tidal Forests • These forests grow along the coast and on the edges of the deltas • Famous for Mangrove & Sundari Trees • Consists of thick Bushes & Ferns • They are Known as Halophytes i.e. Tolerant of Salinity • Found at Sundarbans, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna & Kavery Mountain forests • Mountain forests vary considerably along the slopes of mountain • On the foothills of Himalayas, upto a height of 1500 meters, evergreen trees, (Sal, teak, bamboo and cane) grow abundantly. • On higher slope between 1,500 meters to 3,500 meters, temperate conifer trees (pine, fir, oak, maple, deodar, laurel spruce, cedar) grow. • At the higher altitude of the Himalayas, rhododendrons and junipers are found. Forest cover in India • According to the India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2015, the forest area covers 21.34 per cent of the total land area of the country. • The forest area is the area notified and recorded as the forest land irrespective of the existence of trees, while the actual forest cover is the area occupied by forests with canopy. Forest Conservation Forests have an intricate interrelationship with life and environment. These provide numerous direct and indirect advantages to our economy and society. Hence, conservation of forest is of vital importance to the survival and prosperity of humankind. Accordingly, the Government of India proposed to have a nation-wide forest conservation policy, and adopted a forest policy in 1952, which was further modified in 1988. The forest policy aimed at: • bringing 33 per cent of the geographical areas under forest cover; • maintaining environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balance was disturbed; • conserving the natural heritage of the country, its biological diversity and genetic pool. Social Forestry Farm Forestry
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16 Mahajanapadas - ancient history of India
 
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Mahajanapadas Budhhist literature AnguttaraNikaya gives a list of 16 great kingdoms or Mahajanapadas in the begining of 6th century B.C. Major reason of the formation of Janapadas was use of Iron tools for agricultural & military purposes. Over a period of time small or weak kingdoms either submitted to stronger rulers or got eliminated. Finally in 6th century BC  Vatsa  Avanti  Magadha  Kosala were only 4 major kingdoms survived: Vatsa The Vatsas or Vamsas are called to be a branch of the Kurus. The Vatsa or Vamsa country corresponded with the territory of modern Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. It had a monarchical form of government with its capital at Kaushambi. Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa in the 7th century BCE. He was very powerful, warlike and fond of hunting. Initially king Udayana was opposed to Buddhism, but later became a follower of Buddha and made Buddhism the state religion. Kaushambi was a very prosperous city where a large number of wealthy merchants resided. It was the most important centerport of goods and passengers from the north-west and south. Avanti The country of the Avantis was one of the important kingdom of western India and was one of the four great monarchies in India in the post era of Mahavira and Buddha, the other three being Kosala, VatsaandMagadha. Avanti was divided into north and south by the river Narmada. Initially, Mahishmati (Mahissati) was the capital of Southern Avanti, and Ujjain (Sanskrit: Ujjayini) was of northern Avanti, but at the times of Mahavira and Buddha, Ujjaini was the capital of integrated Avanti. The country of Avanti roughly corresponded to modern Malwa, Nimar and adjoining parts of today's Madhya Pradesh. Both Mahishmati and Ujjaini stood on the southern high road called Dakshinapatha which extended from Rajagriha to Pratishthana (modern Paithan). Avanti was an important center of Buddhism.King NandiVardhana of Avanti was defeated by king Shishunaga of Magadha. Avanti later became part of the Magadhan empires. Magadha The Magadha was one of the most prominent and prosperous of mahajanapadas. The capital city Pataliputra present day Patna, Bihar was situated on the confluence of major rivers like the Ganga, Son, Punpun and Gandak. The alluvial plains of this region and its proximity to the copper and iron rich areas of Bihar and Jharkhand helped the kingdom to develop good quality weapons and support the agrarian economy. Its location at the center of the highways of trade of those days contributed to its wealth. All these factors helped Magadha to emerge as the most prosperous state of that period. The kingdom of the Magadha’s roughly corresponded to the modern districts of Patna and Gaya in southern Bihar and parts of Bengal in the east. The capital city of Pataliputra was bound in the north by the river Ganges, in the east by the river Champa, in the south by the Vindhya Mountains and in the west by the river Sona. During Buddha's time its boundaries included Amga. Its earliest capital was Girivraja or Rajagaha (modern Rajgir in the Nalanda district of Bihar). The other names for the city were Magadhapura, Brihadrathapura, Vasumati, Kushagrapura and Bimbisarapuri. It was an active center of Jainism in ancient times. The first Buddhist Council was held in Rajagaha in the Vaibhara Hills. Later on, Pataliputra became the capital of Magadha. Kosala The country of Kosala was located to the north-west of Magadha, with its capital at Ayodhya. Its territory corresponded to the modern Awadh (or Oudh) in Central and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. It had the river Ganges for its southern, the river Gandak for its eastern, and the Himalaya mountains for its northern boundary. It finds mention as the center of Vedic Dharma. Its kings allied with the Devatas in various wars against the Daityas, Rakshas, and Asuras. Kosala and Ayodhya hold a central place in the Hindu scriptures, Itihas, and Purana. Raghu vansha-Ikshvaku vansha was the longest continuous dynasty; Lord Rama was a king in this dynasty. Other great kings were Prithu, Harishchandra, and Dilip, who are each mentioned in different Puranas, Ramayan, and Mahabharat. According to these texts, Kosala was the most powerful and biggest kingdom ever in the recorded history. Later, the kingdom was ruled by the famous king Prasenajit during the era of Mahavira and Buddha, followed by his son Vidudabha (Virudhaka). King Prasenajit was highly educated. His position was further improved by a matrimonial alliance with Magadha: his sister was married to Bimbisara and part of Kasi was given as dowry. There was, however, a struggle for supremacy between king Pasenadi (Prasenajit) and king Ajatashatru of Magadha which was finally settled once the confederation of Lichchavis became aligned with Magadha. Kosala was ultimately merged into Magadha when Vidudabha was Kosala's ruler. Ayodhya, Saketa, Banaras, and Sravasti were the chief cities of Kosala.
Views: 3732 Exambin
Uncovering the important events in Indian history in just 15 minutes | Indian Independence Timeline
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Uncovering the Important events in India. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: India's Struggle for Independence: 1857-1947 ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2GU6YjD Flipkart : http://fkrt.it/tDM2d2NNNN Download app: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.exambin.app In this vidoe We will be seeing Indian independence timeline which includes the important events in Indian history after the formation of Indian National Congress in 1885. Indian history timeline chart that included important events in indian independence movement like Swadeshi Movement, Non Cooperation movement and many others in anutshell. These Important events in indian independence struggle are must to know things for anyone it may be a student, a jobseeker, UPSC SBI IBPS Exam aspirant or any Indian perhaps. Mmajor events in indian independence movement are revolves around the last 60 years of the British rule. Most of the events in indian freedom struggle are lead by Congress leaders after 1900. Hence we have prepared a timeline of indian freedom struggle which has the timeline of indian national movement including the Indian independence act of 1947 at the end which is the foundation for leading India and Pakistan. This video talks about the Indian independence leaders very briefly as we have not covering the whole Indian independence documentary , If you want to get more videos like this let us know in the comments. People from all over the world were always crazy about India and its wealth, tradition and knowledge. The Aryans came from Central Europe and settled down in India. The Persians followed by the Iranians and Parsis immigrated to India. Then came the Moghuls and they too settled down permanently in India. But the French and British people came by 17th Century colonized India by grabbing the full control of almost all territories across India. Britishers had ruled India for nearly 200 years. In this video you will be seeing the timeline of Freedom Struggle after foundation of The Indian National Congress. Transcript: Timeline Independence of India The Indian National Congress:1885 Partition of Bengal:1905 Swadeshi Movement (1905) Formation of Muslim League (1906) Demand for Swaraj:1906 Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909) Ghadar Party (1913) Home Rule Movement (1916) Lucknow Pact (1916) August Declaration (1917) Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919) Dandi March (1930) Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break the salt law. First Round Table conference (1930) Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931) Second Round Table Conference (1931) The Communal Award (Aug 16,1932) Third Round Table Conference (1932) Demand For Pakistan (1940) The Cripps Mission – 1942: The Revolt of 1942 & The Quit India Movement: The Indian National Army (1942) : The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2, 1946) Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16, 1946) Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9, 1946) Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947) Partition and Independence (Aug 1947) Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Views: 15640 Exambin
How to apply for Interest Subsidy for Educational Loan?
 
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Students who have availed education loan from government-owned banks can submit a request to claim interest subsidy from respective banks from which they have availed educational loans. The officials have told that, almost all of the banks giving educational loans are part of the interest subsidy scheme. What is the aim of the scheme? Central Government has formulated this Scheme to provide interest Subsidy for the period of moratorium that is up to one year from the date of completion of the course on Educational Loans taken by students from Economically Weaker Sections from scheduled banks under the Educational Loan Scheme of the lndian Banks’ Association to pursue Technical or Professional Education studies in India. What is moratorium period? Period of moratorium is generally means a fixed period in a loan where accrued interest is not needed to serve immediately by the borrower. However, the interest may be added to principal or kept pending as interest receivable in the loan and the same will be collected later. In educational loan moratorium period is Course Period plus one year or six months after getting job, whichever is earlier. Who is eligible? Students from Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) with a parental upper income limit of Rs.4.50 lacs per annum. What courses are eligible for the scheme? Approved technical/professional courses in India after class XII, Courses by Educational Institutions established by Acts of Parliament Courses by Other institutions recognized by the concerned statutory Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and other institutions set up by the Central Government. What is the applicable academic years? This scheme shall be applicable in respect of disbursements made on or after 01st April 2009 and for the academic year 2009-10, irrespective of date of sanction. In case of loans sanctioned prior to 01.04.2009 and for the courses beginning prior to the academic year 2009-10, the interest subsidy is available only to the extent of disbursement made after 1.4.2009 How much amount will be given as subsidy? Full interest accrued during Moratorium period What are the documents to be submitted by the student? 1. Subsidy Request Letter 2. Income Certificate 3. Latest Performance Reports (Not mandatory) Download the sample request letter format here You can get to your bank before filling it up as some of the banks have their own format for the request letter. Where can I get Income Certificate? As per scheme, the income documents of parents will be certified by designated authority/ authorities appointed by District Level Consultative Committee (DLCC) at the district / sub – district / Block etc. level. Usually it will be Tahsildar or Deputy Tahsildar level officials. Contact your bank branch to know the exact details. How is the amount is disbursed? The disbursement of interest subsidy claims to the Banks directly by Ministly of HRD, Govt. of lndia on yearly or half yearly basis. We hope all of your queries regarding Interest Subsidy to Educational Loans would have been answered. If you have any more questions ask them in the comments below we shall reply to all of the questions without fail. Share the video with your friends to create awareness about the scheme. Keywords: Education loan waiver, education loan waiver scheme in india, education loan subsidy 2017, education loan subsidy scheme, education loan interest subsidy application form
Views: 6549 Exambin
Fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution
 
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What are fundamental rights? Fundamental Rights are the basic rights of the people. Some universally recognized rights that are seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Fundamental rights across the globe and how is it secured by citizens? Though the rights of the citizens across the globe varies based on country to country. It is evident that more or less they follow same types of rights. India has adopted many countries constitution to frame their version of Fundamental rights. The major contributing countries were USA, UK, Canada and Australia. Here is the list of Borrowed Features of Indian Constitution. Name of Countries and Borrowed Features of the Constitution Britain 1. Parliamentary government 2. Rule of Law 3. Legislative procedure 4. Single citizenship 5. Cabinet system 6. Prerogative writs 7. Parliamentary privileges 8. Bicameralism Ireland 1. Directive Principles of State Policy 2. Method of Election of the president 3. Members nomination to the Rajya Sabha by the President Unites States of America 1.Impeachment of the president 2.Functions of president and vice-president 3.Removal of Supreme Court and High court judges 4.Fundamental Rights 5.Judicial review 6.Independence of judiciary 7.Preamble of the constitution Canada 1. Centrifugal form of federalism where the centre is stronger than the states. 2.Residuary powers vest with the centre 3.Centre appoints the Governors at the states 4.Advisory jurisdiction of the supreme court Australia 1.Concept of Concurrent list 2.Article 108 i.e. Joint sitting of the two houses 3.Freedom of trade and commerce USSR (Now Russia) 1.Fundamental duties 2. The ideals of justice (social, economic and political), expressed in the Preamble. France 1.Concept of “Republic” 2.Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity(contained in the Preamble) Germany 1.Fundamental Rights are suspended during Emergency South Africa 1. Election of members of the Rajya Sabha 2. Amendment of the Constitution Japan 1.Concept of “procedure What are the major rights of Indian Citizen? The Individual Fundamental Rights to Indian Citizens include the following: • Equality before the law • Freedom of religion • Freedom of association and peaceful assembly • Freedom of speech and expression • Right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights Can the rights of citizens be amended in the Constitution? The Supreme Court has ruled that all provisions of the Constitution, including fundamental rights can be amended. Fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution: There are seven fundamental rights enshrined in our Constitution. They are: 1. RIGHT TO EQUALITY (ARTICLES 14-18): It is the principal foundation of all other rights and liberties, and guarantees the following: Article 14: Equality before law. Article 15: Prohibition of discrimination Article 16: Equality of opportunities in matters of public employment. Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability. Article 18: Abolition of titles. 2. RIGHT TO FREEDOM (ARTICLES 19-22): guaranteeing individual rights that were considered vital by the framers of the constitution. It is a cluster of four main laws. Article 19: Rights to freedom of speech and expression Article 20: Protection in respect of conviction for offenses. Article 21: Protection of life and personal liberty Article 21A: Regarding obligation of the state to provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6-14 years. Article 22: Regarding protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. Right to Information (RTI) Article 19 (1) under which every citizen has freedom of speech and expression and have the right to know how the government works, what role does it play, what are its functions and so on. 3. RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION (ARTICLES 23-24): The right against exploitation, given in Articles 23 and 24, provides for two provisions, Article 23: Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor. Article 24: Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. 4. RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION (ARTICLES 25-28): The objective of this right is to sustain the principle of secularism in India. Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion. Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs. Article 27: Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion. Article 28: Freedom as to attendance at religious instructions or religious worship in certain educational institutions. 5. CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS (ARTICLES 29-30): As India is a country of many languages, religions, and cultures, the Constitution provides special measures, in Articles 29 and 30, to protect the rights of the minorities 6. RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES (ARTICLE 32): Right to constitutional remedies [Article 32 to 35] empowers the citizens to move a court of law in case of any denial of the fundamental rights.
Views: 8385 Exambin
The Anglo Maratha Wars -  British Conquest of Maratha
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the eigth session on Indian history here we are going to see about anglo Maratha wars IAS/UPSC lecture which will be helpful Modern Indian History UPSC Anglo-Maratha War There were three Anglo-Maratha wars (or Maratha Wars) fought during the late 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century between the British and the Marathas. At the end, the Maratha power was destroyed and British supremacy established. First Anglo-Maratha War (1775 – 1782) Background and course • The third Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao lost the Third Battle of Panipat on 24 January 1761. He died on 23 June 1761. • Madhav Rao was able to recover some of the Maratha power and territories • When Madhav Rao died, there was a struggle for power in the Maratha rule. • Madhav Rao’s brother Narayan Rao became the Peshwa but his uncle Raghunath Rao wanted to become the Peshwa for this, he sought the help of the English. • the Treaty of Surat in 1775 was signed • The British and the army of Raghunath Rao attacked the Peshwa and won. • the Treaty of Purandhar was signed in 1776 between the Calcutta Council and Nana Phadnavis, a Maratha minister. • Raghunath Rao was given a only pension and Salsette was retained by the British. • In 1777, Nana Phadnavis went against his treaty with the Calcutta Council and granted a port on the west coast to the French. • There was a battle at Wadgaon near Pune in which the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde secured a decisive victory over the English. • The English were forced to sign the Treaty of Wadgaon in 1779. Treaty of Salbai was signed in 1782. This ended the first Anglo-Maratha war. Results • a guarantee from the Marathas that they would retake their possessions in the Deccan from Hyder Ali of Mysore. • All territories taken by the British after the Treaty of Purandhar were ceded back to the Marathas and Raghunath Rao was to live as their pensioner. Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 – 1805) Background and course • After Tipu Sultan’s Mysore was captured by the British in 1799, the Marathas were the only major Indian power left outside of British domination. • At that time, the Maratha Confederacy consisted of five major chiefs, the Peshwas Pune, the Gaekwads Baroda, the Holkars Indore, the Scindias at Gwalior and the Bhonsles at Nagpur. • In the Battle of Poona in 1802, Yashwant Rao Holkar, the chief of the Holkars of Indore defeated the Peshwas and the Scindias. Baji Rao II sought British protection and signed the Treaty of Bassein with them. • The Scindias and the Bhonsles did not accept this treaty and this caused the second Anglo-Maratha war in central India in 1803 Results • All the Maratha forces were defeated by the British in these battles. • The Scindias signed the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon in 1803 through which the British got the territories of Rohtak, Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Gurgaon, Delhi Agra region, Broach, some districts in Gujarat, parts of Bundelkhand and Ahmednagar fort. • The Bhonsles signed the Treaty of Deogaon in 1803 as per which the English acquired Cuttack, Balasore and area west of Wardha River. • The Holkars signed the Treaty of Rajghat in 1805 according to which they gave up Tonk, Bundi and Rampura to the British. • As a result of the war, large parts of central India came under British control. Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 – 1818) Background and course • one last attempt to rebuild their old prestige and they wanted to retake all their old possessions from the English. • The major reason for this war was due to the British conflict with the Pindaris whom the British suspected were being protected by the Marathas. • Peshwa Baji Rao II's forces, supported by those of Mudhoji II Bhonsle of Nagpur and Malhar Rao Holkar III of Indore, rose against the East India Company. • British victories were swift, resulting in the breakup of the Maratha Empire and the loss of Maratha independence Results • The Treaty of Gwalior was signed in 1817 between Shinde and the British, even though he had not been involved in the war. As per this treaty, Shinde gave up Rajasthan to the British. • The Treaty of Mandasor was signed between the British and the Holkar chief in 1818 • The Peshwa surrendered in 1818.Most parts of his territory became part of the Bombay Presidency. • His adopted son, Nana Saheb became one of the leaders of the Revolt of 1857 at Kanpur. • The territories annexed from the Pindaris became the Central Provinces under British India. • An obscure descendent of Chhatrapati Shivaji was placed as the ceremonial head of the Maratha Confederacy at Satara. The main Reason for Maratha Losing was due to the Lack of unity among the Maratha chiefs themselves, relationship with ruling neighboring states and provinces and Failure to understand the British political and diplomatic strengths.
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Carnatic Wars- The fall of French and Rise of English in India | Modern Indian History
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app This lecture on The Carnatic Wars which comes in the Modern Indian History covers : The Carnatic first second and third war. We hope that this is useful for your carnatic wars upsc prepartions The First Carnatic War (1746-48) The War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe in 1740. In this war Britain and France joined opposite camps. As a result the English and the French Companies also became engulfed in the war. Thus the First Carnatic War was started British India. At first a British fleet under Barnett captured some French ships and even endangered Pondicherry. Dupleix, the Governor General of French, then sent an appeal to La Bourdonnais, governor of Mauritius, to assist him with his fleet. French East India Company, With the help of this fleet Dupleix captured Madras. But soon differences flared up between Dupleix and Bourdonnais. La Bourdonnais went back with his fleet. The English then made a naval attack on Pondicherry but was repulsed with heavy loss. The Second Carnatic War (1749-54) After the First Carnatic War, Dupleix fully understood the weakness of the Indian princes.british east india company, Henceforth he began to look for opportunities to extend French influence by calculated interference in the internal quarrels of the Indian states French India . Tripartite Understanding: upleix soon got his opportunity. He was able to interfere in the wars of succession that started after the death of Asaf Jah (1748), the late Nizam of Hyderabad. Carnatic region The Third Carnatic War (1757-1763 AD.) The seven Year’s War broke out in Europe in 1756 A.D. In this War England and France joined opposite camps. Its repercussion was immediately felt in India. The two Companies renewed their hostility. Thus began the Third Carnatic War. anglo french war in india,This time the war passed beyond the limits of the Carnatic and reached Bengal as well, where the English captured the French possession of Chandernagore in 1757. But as the most decisive battles of the wars were fought in the Carnatic, nawab of carnatic,it is rightly called as the Third Carnatic War. Causes of French failure • A principal factor for French failure was the superiority of the British naval power. This enabled the English to bring soldiers from Europe and to send supplies from Bengal. But the French were unable to replenish their resources from outside. • Secondly, the English East India Company was a private company and it showed greater enterprise in business. But the French Company was dependent on the government and lacked the spirit of bold, individual and corporate effort. Neither the French government nor the share holders who were assured of a fixed dividend took any active interest in the fortunes of the Company British Raj,. • Thirdly, the British had three important bases in India – Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. If any of these bases were imperiled by the French, the English could still get resources from other centers and could continue war from the other bases. On the other hand, the French had only one strong base at Pondicherry. If Pondicherry was endangered, it could not get any effective support from their other bases in India. • Fourthly, the British Company was lucky to have many capable men like Clive, Lawrence, and Eyre Coote etc. in its service. On the other hand, besides Dupleix, the French Company had no really able man to serve it. • Fifthly, the victory at Plassey gave the English Company large resources of a rich area Pondichéry,.
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5 New English Vocabulary words with Meaning, Picture and Example Sentence | Vocabulary Builder – 120
 
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Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn Today's words are taken from THE HINDU's Editorial. Article: Upheld at The Hague: Pakistan must act responsibly Link: http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/upheld-at-the-hague/article18491889.ece Today's Words are 1. Preclude 2. Irreparable 3. Clemency 4. Leverage 5. Prejudice Playlist for English Vocabulary : ----------------------------------https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9cxGN9cAH4&list=PLxJNbXGrHdcWe4PMHJLQ7RZP8SRBrJOr4 In this vocabulary builder lesson for vocabulary builder English we have presented the above selected English words to learn vocabulary words. We have planned to set all these English vocabulary as a vocabulary builder app after we complete our 15o episodes of the Hindu vocabulary. Mostly we prefer The Hindu Editorial to take 5 words in English to help in English vocabulary for competitive exams. The Vocabulary Builder course comprises of vocabulary words english learn with picture for difficult vocabulary words with meaning and sentence. English vocabulary words with meaning serves you 5 English words daily based on Indian Newspaper THE HINDU and curated from their editorials daily. Words discussed are: 1. Preclude Class : Verb Meaning : prevent from happening; make impossible.. Synonyms: Prevent, Prohibit Antonyms : Allow, Permit Example Sentences • They did not preclude national rules to control television advertising designed to protect consumers. • A rider must be visible at all times in order to preclude collisions from happening. ________________________________________ 2. Irreparable Class : Adjective Meaning : (of an injury or loss) impossible to rectify or repair.. Synonyms: Broken, Cureless Antonyms : Repairable, Rectifiable Example Sentences • Now, some people will insist that massive strokes leave irreparable injuries to the brain. • Two different judges in those three separate hearings have said no irreparable harm is being done. ________________________________________ 3. Clemency Class : Noun Meaning : mercy; lenience.. Synonyms: Mercy, Forgiveness Antonyms : Cruelty, Brutality Example Sentences • Unfortunately, the law is utterly silent on how, why and when this clemency should be exercised. • He is trying to raise public awareness about her plight in order to win some state-sanctioned clemency , but it might be too late ________________________________________ 4. Leverage Class : Verb Meaning : use borrowed capital for (an investment), expecting the profits made to be greater than the interest payable.. Synonyms: Purchase, Influence Antonyms : Retailing, Selling Example Sentences • He is able to get low and gain leverage , which allows him to move around even the biggest linemen. • The organization needs to leverage its key resources ________________________________________ 5. Prejudice Class : Noun Meaning : harm or injury that results or may result from some action or judgment.. Synonyms: Harm, Discrimination Antonyms : Justice, Tolerance Example Sentences • Publicans, like everyone else in society, need to look at their own prejudice , bias and behaviours. • In the present case, I see no irreparable harm or prejudice that cannot be compensated for by costs. ----------------------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------
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Indian Polity Lesson 1 - Historical Background of Indian Constitution Part I, indian polity upsc ssc
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app In this Indian Polity Lesson 1 for indian polity upsc & indian polity ssc we are going to see about “Historical Background of Indian Constitution”. We will be looking at how East India Company and British slowly built the framework of Indian Polity to enable Indian Administrators tweaked and brought their version after independence. Before 1947, India was divided into two main entities – The British India which consisted of 11 provinces and the Princely states ruled by Indian princes under subsidiary alliance policy. The two entities merged together to form the Indian Union, but many of the legacy systems in British India is followed even now. The historical underpinnings and evolution of the India Constitution can be traced to many regulations and acts passed before Indian Independence. This session deals about Indian polity introduction - Historical details. indian polity historical background in english. Indian System of Administration Indian democracy is a Parliamentary form of democracy where the executive is responsible to the Parliament. The Parliament has two houses – Lok sabha and Rajya sabha. Also, the type of governance is Federal, ie there is separate executive and legislature at Center and States. We also have self-governance at local government levels. All these systems owe their legacy to the British administration. Let us see the historical background of Indian Constitution and its development through years. Going forward we will be seeing too many Acts and their enactment years. Lets look at the very brief of the British India context. ■ Around 1600 AD Britishers were came to India for Trade. And for large part, they were from East India company which has exclusive access to India for Trade from Britain. ■ The East India Company was founded in the year 1600 for persuading the trade with South Asia and South East Asia. ■ But, the East India Company traded mainly in the Indian subcontinent and China. ■ In the year 1765 the East India Company obtained Rights over revenue and civil justice of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa which is otherwise known as Diwani. ■ In the year 1858 after the Sepoy mutiny, British crown took direct responsibility for the governance of India. ■ This rule continued till India got Independence in 1947. We will now be exploring the what happened between 1600 and 1947 one by one. Historical background of indian constitution is the first lesson in our Indian Polity series. THE COMPANY RULE (1773-1858): AND THE REGULATING ACT OF 1773 These two acts laid the foundation for centrally administered India, and for the first time, political and administrative functions of the East India company were recognized. This is regarded as the first step taken by British Government to control and regulate the activities of East India Company in India. FEATURES (CHARACTERISTICS) OF 1773 ACT: ■ The Governor of Bengal was designated as the Governor-General of Bengal and the Executive council of the 4 members were created to assist the Governor-General. ■ The first Governor-General of Bengal was Lord Warren Hastings. ■ Governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies subordinate to the Governor-General of Bengal. ■ The act enabled establishment of Supreme Court at Calcutta in the year 1774. ■ The Supreme Court comprised of a Chief Justice and 3 other judges. ■ This act prohibited the servants of the company from engaging in any private trade or accepting presentations (gifts) or bribes from the native Indians. ■ The 1773 act strengthened the control of British government over the company by requiring the court the Directors to report on its revenue, civil and military affairs in India. ■ The 1781 act of Settlement – passed by the British parliament to rectify the defects of 1773 Act. PITTS INDIA ACT OF 1784: ■ The Pitts India act distinguished between commercial and political functions of the company. ■ The Court of Directors entrusted with the responsibility to manage commercial affairs of the company. ■ The Board of control was entrusted with the responsibility of political affairs. ■ Thus the Pitts India act established the dual (double) government. ■ The company territories in India were for the first time called British possessions in India.
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Vocabulary  Episode 2 | Fogged, Deteriorate, Susceptible, Inherit, | TIMES OF INDIA
 
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Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates Today's words are taken from THE HINDU's Editorial. Article Link: http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ Words discussed are: 1. Fogged 2. Deteriorate 3. Susceptible 4. Inherit In this videos we have presented the above selected english words for learning by example sentences. This will be useful for IELTS, TOEFL, IBPS, SSC CGL, SBI and most other competitive exams. English speaking is not a science it is only an art of learning words by improving your vocabulary with rich new words you can easily speak english with new set of words. All the words discussed are given with meaning of the words and synonym, antonym of the words. We take these words from The hindu editorial which is believed to be one of the best in terms of editorial words used in their articles. We must improve upon our English Vocabulary to enrich our knowledge in Spoken English as well as written English. Though British English and American English differences in accent, words from basic english to advanced english are mostly similar with some spelling variations. Attending to English classes online will be helpful to improve basic english listening, english reading. Our videos are Prepared by selecting editorial words from the hindu editorial. We frame a few example sentences after providing synonyms with basic general meaning for the word and antonyms that is opposite words to the word taken from the editorial. We also plan to introduce Idioms and Phrases in the future. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin
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Indian Architecture UPSC lesson | Indian Architecture for IAS, Ancient Architectures of India
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Indian Architecture. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2GVIoyM Flipkart : http://fkrt.it/t93QT2NNNN General Awareness: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Vocabulary Booster: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcWe4PMHJLQ7RZP8SRBrJOr4 IN this session, we are going to learn about the Indian architecture UPSC lesson. Indian architecture for IAS lesson is all about just introducing the basic concepts in Indian Architecture. You still have to study the Indian architecture books to get full detailed information. Our aim is to get you started on the Indian architectures such as Colonial Architecture, Indo Islamic Architecture, Ancient Architecture, Cave Architecture, Rock Cut, Temple Architecture. These are the types of Indian architecture. Ancient architecture of India is rich in culture and tradition. Lets see some facts on it. Colonial Architecture Like all other aspects of society, the colonization of India also had a great impact on architecture. Colonization marked a new chapter in Indian architecture. Though the Dutch, the Portuguese and the French made their presence felt through their buildings but it was the English who had a lasting impact on architecture of India. In the beginning of the colonial rule there were attempts at creating authority through classical prototypes. In its later phase the colonial architecture culminated into what is called the Indo-Saracenic architecture. The Indo-Saracenic architecture combined the features of Hindu, Islamic and western elements. Examples: Santhome Church,Chennai All Saints Cathedral, Allahabad St. George's Cathedral, Chennai Gole Market, New Delhi Medak Cathedral, Telangana Indo Islamic Architecture The medieval period saw great developments in the field of architecture. With the coming of Muslims to India, many new features came to be introduced in buildings. The development of Muslim Style of Architecture of this period can be called the Indo-Islamic Architecture or the Indian Architecture influenced by Islamic Art. Examples: Qutub Minar, New Delhi Alai Darwaza, New Delhi Agra Fort, Agra Taj Mahal, Agra Red Fort, New Delhi Ancient Architecture Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. The earliest remains of recognizable building activity in the India dates back to the Indus Valley cities. Among India's ancient architectural remains, the most characteristic are the temples, Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and other religious structures. Examples: Akshardham Temple, Delhi Virupaksha Temple, Karnataka Karla Caves, Maharashtra Ellora Caves, Maharashtra Cave Architecture The cave architecture in India is believed to have begun during the ancient time. These caves were used by Buddhist and Jain monks as places of worship and residence . Examples: Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra Bhaja Caves, Maharashtra Bedse Caves, Maharashtra Sittanavasal, Tamilnadu Rock Cut The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were closely associated with various religions and religious activities. In the beginning, remarkable Buddhist and Jain rock-cut structures were built in areas such as Bihar in the east and Maharashtra in the west. Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. The best example of this is Chaityas (prayer halls) and viharas (monasteries). Examples: Kailasa temple, Ellora Pancha Rathas, Mahabalipuram Barabar Caves, Bihar Badami Cave Temples, Karnataka Ajanta Cave, Maharashtra Temple Architecture In ancient India, temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. Ancient Indian temples are classified in three broad types. This classification is based on different architectural styles, employed in the construction of the temples. Three main style of temple architecture are the Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara or Mixed style. But at the same time there are also some regional styles of Bengal, Kerala and the Himalayan areas. Examples: Brihadeeswarar Temple, Thanjavur Jagadamba Temple, Madhya Pradesh Sun Temple, Modhera Konark Sun Temple, Orissa Chennakeshava Temple, Karnataka Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
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Basics of Hardware and software | Computer Awareness Lesson - 7
 
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Computer Awareness Series : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcV1XAQS3-P7D2tfRIrYI5sl This is session is about Basics of Hardware and software Basics of Hardware and software. We will be getting to know about primary memory vs secondary memory through primary memory example. Primary memory and secondary memory in computer are random access memory, secondary memory storage devices. We have discussed briefly on read only memory explained, eeprom memory. The major types Software types in computer : system software and application software. Application software and system software are the two major classification in types of softwares. application software examples are discussed. Computer for competitive exams, computer in education are this series’ focus. Hardware Hardware refers to the physical components of the computer. Monitor, Keybord, Cpu are the three major parts of a computer. Here, CPU is the main component of the computer. Again, CPU is divided into three major parts. 1. Control Unit 2. Arithmetic Logic Unit 3. Memory 1. Control unit This unit controls the operations of all parts of a computer. It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.  It converts the user input and converts them into signals sends to ALU Unit.  It uses clock inputs to maintain the sequence of the data, this speed is the frequency of the data processing and it is measured in Megahertz. 2. Arithmetic Logic Unit An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of CPU System that carries out arithmetic and logic operations. • An ALU performs basic arithmetic, examples of arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. • It also performs logical operations like comparisons of values such as NOT, AND, and OR. • All information in a computer is stored in the form of binary numbers, i.e. 0 and 1. 3. Memory Unit The memory unit stores the data, instructions and sends the information to all the other units of the computer whenever it needs. It is also known as primary memory or RAM (Random access memory). All input and output are transmitted through main memory. There are two kinds memory we often refers to when it comes to computer memory system. Those are: 1. Primary Memory Primary memory select any part of memory when user want to save the data in memory but that may not be store permanently on that location. It also has another name i.e. RAM. Random Access Memory (RAM): The primary storage is referred to as random access memory (RAM) due to the random selection of memory locations. It performs both read and write operations on memory. If power failures happened in systems during memory access then you will lose your data permanently. So, RAM is volatile memory. 2. Secondary Memory Secondary memory is external and permanent memory that is useful to store the external storage media such as DVD Drive, Hard Disk, Memory cards, Memory Sticks like Pen Drive. Secondary memory deals with following types of components. Read Only Memory (ROM) : memory location that offer huge ROM is permanent types of standards to save data. But it work with read only operation. No data lose happen whenever power failure occur during the ROM memory work in computers. ROM memory has several models such names are following. We have added pronunciation to our vocabulary learning series as per your feedback…thank you.! 1. PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) maintains large storage media but can’t offer the erase features in ROM. This type of RO maintains PROM chips to write data once and read many. The programs or instructions designed in PROM can’t be erased by other programs. 2. EPROM : Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory designed for recover the problems of PROM and ROM. Users can delete the data of EPROM thorough pass on ultraviolet light and it erases chip is reprogrammed. 3. EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory similar to the EPROM but it uses electrical beam for erase the data of ROM. 1. System Software 2. Application Software System software The System software consists of low level (binary) programs that interact with the computer at the very basic level. Examples of system softwares are Operating Systems, Compilers and Utilities for managing computer resources (printer software, scanner software etc). Some of the Major Operating systems that used widely around the globe is 1. Windows OS 2. Mac OS 3. Linux OS Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Most famous 10 folk dances in India | Folk dances of India UPSC, SSC, Bank Exams
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Most famous 10 folk dance. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Indian Classical Dance: The Renaissance and Beyond ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2kxNqJ4 Flipkart : http://fkrt.it/tkCG22NNNN General Awareness: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Vocabulary Booster: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcWe4PMHJLQ7RZP8SRBrJOr4 In This session of General awareness series we are going to learn about Folk dances of India. We would only focus on the 10 famous folk dances of India in this video. If any of the folk dances of India UPSC perspective is missed let us know in the comments we will try to add that up in next version of folk dances of India video. Folk dance in India is widely acknowledged in colourful tradition. Folk dAnce in tamil nadu, kerala, Punjab, J&K, Maharashtra and many other states are discussed as folk dance documentary which will be useful for folk dances for exams. Folk dances indo and types of folk dances are also discussed here. Folk dance in India and List of folk dances are: Rouff Jammu and Kashmir Rouff is the traditional folk dance of Kashmir, performed solely by the women on festive occasions. Bhangra Punjab Merely everyone knows this folk dance, hailing from the vibrant state of Punjab. This dance originates from the Majha area of Punjab. Ghoomar Rajasthan Ghoomar is performed by women in colourful swirling ghagharas. The beauty of this dance is in the stunning spins which go on to reveal the various gorgeous colours of the swirling skirts. The dance is performed in honour of the Goddess Saraswati, the Goddess of Knowledge. Ghoomar is an absolutely fascinating and hypnotic dance to watch! Garba Gujarat Garba is the folk dance of Gujarat, now popular in its neighbouring states too. The dance symbolises a celebration of life. Usually performed around a clay lantern, the dancers honour the Goddess Durga, the feminine representation of divinity. Garba is always performed in a circle (as a metaphor for the cyclic nature of time). In modern times, the Garba that is performed is heavily influenced by the Dandiya Raas, thus giving it the high energy it is known for. Bihu Assam Bihu is a fast-paced, extremely joyful dance, hailing from the state of Assam. It is performed by young girls and boys during the festivals of Bihu, Assam’s three important agricultural festivals. The dance is performed to a twin-faced drum, with one end played with a stick and the other with the palm. Chhau West Bengal This is a tribal martial arts dance popular in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Orissa. It is mainly performed during regional festivals, especially the spring festival of Chaitra Parva, which is a thirteen-days long event. Lavani Maharashtra Traditionally performed to the beat of the dholki, Lavani is a high-energy performance (usually by women), and has contributed immensely to the development of folk theatre in Maharashtra. There are two types of Lavani performances – Phadachi Lavani (enacted in a public space, a theatrical atmosphere) and Baithakachi Lavani (performed in a closed space to a select audience, and mostly while sitting down) Dollu Kunitha Karnataka Dollu Kunitha is a folk dance performed in the temples of Beereshwara or Beeralingeswara, in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Puli Kali Kerala Performed during Onam, Kerala’s harvest festival, Puli Kali is a visual art in almost every aspect. Artists and dancers paint their bodies as tigers and hunters and dance to the beat of musical instruments like the Udukku and Thakil. Karakattam Tamil Nadu Karakattam, also known as Karagam, is a popular folk dance of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Karakattam is conducted by an individual or two persons with various acrobatic feats. The dancers, attired in colourful costumes, carry decorated pots on their heads and dance in a lively manner to the rhythm of the music. The pots are adorned with a cone of flower arrangements with a paper parrot at its top. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
Views: 19437 Exambin
Recapitalisation & Financial Sector Reforms | Banking Awareness Series
 
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Recapitalisation & Financial Sector Reforms Hello friends, Welcome back to Exambin’s Financial learning series. In this session we are going to know about the recapitalisation in financial sector and why it is needed at this time. Why recapitalisation is in news? RBI Governor has recently spoken about Recapitalisation of banks needs to be done with a clear and structured foresight. What is recapitalisation? • Generally, Recapitalization is a process of restructuring a company's debt and equity mixture, often with the aim of making a company's capital structure more stable or optimal. • Re-capitalisation of banks means infusing additional capital that is liquid money into the banks in order to give them the liquidity needed to carry out lending and other banking functions. • On that note, it is a positive sign that the RBI, as the sector’s regulator, and the government, as the principal shareholder of these banks, now are in consultations on the problem. Why did the liquidity crunch arise? • The banking sector is badly affected by the build-up of gross Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) which led to liquidity crunch. • It has also been observed that NPAs are heavily concentrated in Public Sector Banks. • Some PSBs have NPAs in the range of 15 to 24 per cent. • This has resulted in slowdown in bank’s lending to industry and retail growth, thus holding back private investment in economic growth. • The prevalence of bad loans also presents a serious systemic risk to the financial system. How much is the figures to worry? • Gross NPAs stood at almost 9.6% of the total bank loans at the end of the last financial year. • Stressed advances are another 12 per cent as of March 2017 • As much as 86.5 per cent of GNPAs are accounted by large borrowers • Total Bad loans is reportedly being at Rs.9 Trillion or 9 Lakh Crores. What are the priorities in this regard? • NPA Problem -Settling the existing bad loans might require banks to write off a considerable sum, which would affect their capital provisioning, thereby requiring re-capitalisation. • But, given that NPAs are over Rs 9 lakh crores, a straightforward recapitalisation of PSBs would greatly strain the government’s fiscal position. • Furthermore, in the absence of deep governance reform, it is uncertain that the NPA problem will ever be solved. • It is essential, therefore, that the structure of any bank bailout be such that future bad behaviour is not incentivised. • Disinvestment - Besides capital infusion by the government, raising capital from the market by dilution of government equity and sales of non-core assets are also being considered. • Dilution of government equity must be accompanied by a reduction in effective government control to make it an attractive buy for the private sector. • Incentive Mechanism -A mechanism to hold poor performer banks accountable and incentivising good ones is needed. • Such an approach will produce a stronger public sector banking system. • Certainly, India cannot afford to pour in more money to the bad performers by penalizing good performers. What are the steps taken so far? • The government has made a budgetary provision of pumping in Rs 75,000 crore into state-run banks for the four-year period ending March 2019. • On June 13, the RBI had drawn up a list of 500 largest defaulters and made public 12 of the largest among the larger list and asked banks to get these accounts cleared through the National Company Law Tribunal. • These 12 accounts comprise Bhushan Steel, Bhushan Power & Steel, Essar Steel, Lanco Infra, Amtek Auto, Electrosteel Steel, Jaypee Infra, Alok Industries and Jyoti Structures, Era Infrastructure, ABG Shipyard and Monet Ispat which together account for over 25% of the total bad loans of Rs 9 trillion of which Rs 6 trillion are with public sector banks alone. Ask your questions on the topic we would respons to each and every comment that is being posted.
Views: 5729 Exambin
Top 10 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India UPSC | Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks Series - 3
 
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Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn wildlife sanctuaries in india upsc, wildlife sanctuaries in india, wildlife sanctuaries in india tricks, wildlife sanctuaries in india tricks in English, wildlife sanctuaries in india videos, wildlife sanctuaries and national parks, wildlife sanctuary in kerala, wildlife sanctuaries in tamil nadu A wildlife sanctuary is a space that is exclusive for wild animals to roam or live in the area. Typically, a sanctuary is created by govt that sets the space aside, and rangers to ensure that no one hunts or harasses the animals. In this video we will be seeing about wildlife sanctuaries in india upsc exams , ssc , ibps exams carries a few questions in this topic in GK section. wildlife sanctuary in kerala, wildlife sanctuaries in tamil nadu also covered with a few taking spot in the top 10. Watch our other videos from general Awareness here https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala Highlights: • State: Kerala • Address: Udumalpet Road, Munnar, Kerala, Pin - 685612, India • Area: 90.44 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1984 • Best Time to Visit: December to April Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary, Goa Highlights: • State: Goa • Address: NH 4A, Caranzol, Goa, Pin - 403410, India • Area: 107 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1978 • Best Time to Visit: October to March Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary,Gujarat Highlights: • State: Gujarat • Address: Palchhi, Gujarat, India • Area: 607.70 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1982 • Best Time to Visit: November to March Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka Highlights: • State: Karnataka • Address: Chickmagaluru, Karnataka, Pin - 577101, India • Area: 492.46 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1951 • Best Time to Visit: October to March Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary, Jammu and Kashmir Highlights: • State: Jammu and Kashmir • Address: Dachigam Road, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir Pin - 191202, India • Area: 141 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1981 • Best Time to Visit: Between late November and early February Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana Highlights: • State: Telangana • Address: Jannaram, Telangana, Pin - 504205, India • Area: 893 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1965 • Best Time to Visit: November to June Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka Highlights: • State: Karnataka • Address: SH 46, Dandeli, Karnataka, Pin - 581325, India • Area: 834.16 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1987 • Best Time to Visit: November to June Hastinapur Sanctuary,Uttar Pradesh Highlights: • State: Uttar Pradesh • Address: Hastinapur Kaurwan, Uttar Pradesh, Pin - 250404, India • Area: 2073 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1986 • Best Time to Visit: April to November Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary,Chhattisgarh Highlights: • State: Chhattisgarh • Address: Beladula Road, Devgaon, Chhattisgarh, Pin - 493778, India • Area: 556 km2 • Year of Establishment: 1974 • Best Time to Visit: November to June Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary,Tamilnadu Highlights: • State: Tamil Nadu • Address: Talamalai R.F., Pin - 638401, Tamil Nadu, India • Area: 1411 km2 • Year of Establishment: 2008 Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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INDIAN GEOGRAPHY : Indian Climate Part 1
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the third lesson on geography here we are going to see about climate of india geography IAS/UPSC lecture which will be helpful for your preparations with climate of India geography UPSC/IAS Climate of India  In a country like India which has different geographical structures that varies in region to region we have varied climatic conditions.  India has very hot and very cold regions; as well as regions with very heavy rainfall and very scanty rainfall Climatic Seasons of India The South west monsoon controls the agriculture of India, which is the main occupation of the people. Distribution of Rainfall in India  The rainfall in India is seasonal, uncertain and unevenly distributed Major factors affecting Indian Climate  Northward shifting of the Westerly Jet (north of himalayas)  Northward shifting of the ITCZ.  S-E trade winds from S. hemisphere cross the equator and turn right due to coriolis force.  Latitudinal Extent  Southern Seas  Northern Mountains  El – Nino  La – Nina  Westerlies in Northern part of India from Mediterranean (in winters)  Easterlies due to Heating of Tibetan Plateau  Jet streams Indian Monsoon Features  Monsoon is seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea  The southwest monsoon brings rains towards the end of summer as the high pressure built in the Indian Ocean pushes the wind masses towards the low pressure formed on land  Temperature Gradient → It’s the temperature variation between the sea and the landmass Summer Monsoon in India (SW Monsoon) • Originates due to Northward shift of ITCZ → SE trade winds cross equator → Deflect & enter into India as SW Monsoon • Easterly Jet Stream / SE Monsoon / BOB Monsoon → Due to differential heating of Tibetian plateau & Himalayan region BOB Initiation of Summer Monsoon • The southwest monsoon typically breaks over Indian Territory by around 25 May, when it lashes the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal • It strikes the Indian mainland around 1 June near the Malabar Coast of Kerala • By 9 June, it reaches Mumbai; it appears over Delhi by 29 June Withdrawal of Summer Monsoon • Monsoon clouds begin retreating from North India by the end of August; it withdraws from Mumbai by 5 October • As India further cools during September, the southwest monsoon weakens. By the end of November, it leaves the country Arabian Sea Branch • Strikes WGs + Move parallel to Aravallis & Strike Himalayas • Rainfall at WGs & Coastal Regions + Northern Plains • Strikes at Western Ghats; and gives rainfall to the western most regions • While rain shadow interiors, the Deccan plateau receive very less rainfall. Bay of Bengal Branch • Moves parallel with the Eastern Ghats and produce very less rainfall until it strikes at NE. • Bifurcate at Meghalaya hills & move parallel to Himalaya • One branch provide rainfall to NE India region Retreating or NE Monsoon • Around September, with the sun fast retreating south, the northern land mass of the Indian subcontinent cool off rapidly Indian ocean Winter Rainfall in South India • While travelling towards the Indian Ocean, the dry cold wind picks up some moisture from the Bay of Bengal and pours it over peninsular India and parts of Sri Lanka • Cities like Madras, which get less rain from the Southwest Monsoon, receive rain from this Monsoon. Jet Streams • Jet streams are currents of air high above the Earth • They at altitudes of about 8 to 15 kilometers, located near tropopause • The major jet streams on Earth are westerly winds (flowing west to east) • Flow at very high speeds → 120 kmph in winters and 50 kmph in summers • Jet streams are caused by a combination of a planet’s rotation on its axis and atmospheric heating Sub-tropical jet stream • They prevail over the lower latitudes of westerlies. • It is produced by the rotation of earth and its spherical shape. • The air over equator has the highest velocity (Coriolis effect) Sub-Tropical Westerly Jet • Winter – entirely south of Himalayas – over north India • Major cause of western disturbance • STWJ maintain the High pressure over north India • Hence no Monsoon in winters • During summers it flows to the north of Himalayas • Hence low pressure over north India & monsoon Mid-latitude or polar front jet stream • It is more variable and is produced by a temperature difference • In summers its position shifts towards poles and in winters towards equator
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India’s role in United Nations | Role of India in UN | permanent membership in UNSC
 
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Part I - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUVNIMQ2GQg Part II - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d67ZqTcfwUk Part III - https://youtu.be/zffZJvd52VQ Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app INDIA’S ROLE IN UN India was one of the founding member of the United Nations by 1945, which is happened two years before India’s Independence. India actively participated in UN activities since then. India took a major role in drafting the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. India was the first chair of the Decolonization Committee. As a leader of Non Aligned Movement where Jawaharlal Nehru was co-founder, India raised the issues of the third world in the UN. INDIA DESERVES A PERMANENT SEAT IN UNSC India have a bid for permanent membership in UNSC and campaigns for the reformation of UN system globally. India is one among the top troop contributors to United Nations Peacekeeping. In terms of Economy and Military, India has shown a steady growth in the past decades. Currently having one sixth of world’s population (1.28 billion) and being the World’s largest democracy, India deserves a permanent seat in UNSC. CHALLENGES TO OVERCOME It is a complex situation. India is growing economically but lags being when it comes to per capita indicators. Owing to its military strength, it is contributing in huge numbers to peacekeeping but cannot match up to the financing levels of P-5 or Japan in relation to peacekeeping operations. Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan comprise the group of G4 nations, mutually supporting one another's bids for permanent seats.This sort of reform has traditionally been opposed by the Uniting for Consensus group, which is composed primarily of nations who are regional rivals and economic competitors of the G4. The group is led by Italy and Spain (opposing Germany), Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina (opposing Brazil), Pakistan (opposing India), and South Korea (opposing Japan). Other than U.K. and France, three other permanent members of the Security Council are still against Council reform that would entail a change in their present status. The possibility of changes in the positions of the US and Russia are unlikely since they are in a state of relative decline. Since it is their current status in the Council that provides them pre-eminence on issues related to international peace and security, they are not expected to support any move that reduces their say in global politics. It is unrealistic to think that China would not give up its present privileged status in the UN, even as it seeks greater influence and presence in global politics as a rising power. The P5 are unlikely to approve the promotion of any country to permanent status due to the fact that such a change would eventually dilute their power. A careful reading of the report of the deliberations of the UNGA on November 7, 2016 would suggest that nothing has changed at the ground level; only the rhetoric of member If we were to view our claim for permanent berth in the UNSC from a critic’s prism, we could say that in all earnestness, India itself has not abided by the UN Resolution on Kashmir, its human rights records are dismal and country is plagued with social evils like, rampant corruption, crime against women and children, labour exploitation, internal and external security problems like terrorism and Naxalism, communal disharmony etc. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CASE OF UNSC REFORMATION After more than 20 years of stalling, moves to reform the council to reflect a more global balance of power gained momentum in 2015 when a negotiating text was adopted by the General Assembly, overcoming strong opposition from a small group of countries including Pakistan and Italy. The adoption of the text was a breakthrough as meaningful negotiations could not be held without such a document. WHAT INDIA CAN DO? The current scenario shows that a permanent seat in UNSC with veto power is a Himalayan task for India to achieve. We may get this done one day. But, we should also realise that there are many other alternatives like BRICS, G20, etc. in front of us. India have a great role to play in these groupings. India Should come in front to work for peace when there are tensions like we did in the initial years of NAM. (India couldn’t react to the recent issues like Syrian crisis.) India should give attention to its own security threats and this will help India to emerge as a global role model or a security provider. The oppositions and challenges which India faced in other groupings like Nuclear Suppliers Group shows that India still lacks a global consensus. UNSC is one of the toughest task for Indian diplomats.
Views: 2406 Exambin
How to increase the income of farmers | 3 Step Process to Increasing the income of farmers
 
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Increasing the income of farmers What is the underlying issue? 3.2 lakh farmers have committed suicide in the last 20 years Every half an hour, a farmer is taking his/her life in the process of producing food for all of us Farm crisis, farmer suicides, pesticide poisoning, land grab and several other issues pushing farmers into taking their lives But of all the underlying issue is low income of farmers. Year on Year, farmers income level is deteriorating. We need a sustainable and effective solution to increase the income of farmers so that economic growth will be stabilised. How do we enhance farm income on a sustained basis? Farm income is the excess of income from the sale of farmer’s produce over his expenditure incurred on producing the same. Three main components are 1. Maximisation of revenue; 2. Minimisation of costs of inputs, 3. Development of alternative sources of income. Maximisation of revenue Crop selection: Every crop’s price is a function of global demand, supply, inventory levels, currency rates, trade flows, freight rates, interest rates, governmental policies and local politics. With a view of assessing the same, it is proposed that a National Crop Planning Bureau be set up, with a mandate to develop understanding and competencies on each of India’s major crops. This will ensure that the farmer does not overproduce a wrong crop at the cost of foregoing profits on another crop. Further, we need to ensure that India creates global competency in a few crops. India’s agri-infrastructure is geared towards procurement, storage and movement of wheat and rice. Yield maximisation: Crop production has to meet the growing population. Each crop has a research centre in India, which works on testing multiple varieties of seeds. rate also needs to improve in India, so as to ensure continuous enhancement of yield levels. Collective farming and bargaining: The mandi system of India, in spite of its pitfalls, has done a tremendous job of aggregating and consolidating farm produce. Now, the next step in this journey is to either form FPOs (Farmer Producer Organisations/ Companies) or to form farm co-operatives (FCs). Minimisation of costs Inputs: Cost of inputs can be minimised by • Ensuring zero tax on all participants of the value chain of manufacturing the input so as to have a low end-cost of finished product, ensuring early release of subsidies to the companies or the farmers. • Continued priority sector lending rate benefits, • Ensuring adequate availability during peak season to avoid black marketing, • Rationalised subsidy calculation mechanism which negates net-back dilution on account of freight charges. Electricity and water: State energy development authorities under the Ministry of Renewable Energy should ensure that all farms shift to solar irrigation pumps, provided by the government under the National Solar Mission. Mechanisation: The effort needs to be scaled up inline with aggregators like Ola, Uber to provide mechanised farm products at a fraction of their cost. Interest rates: Interest rates on loans to farmers need to be continue being the lowest. Logistics: An unseen component of the overall crop economics is the cost of logistics of marketing the produce.The cost of transporting higher volumes leads to lower per tonne cost of transportation. Alternate sources of income Dairy and livestock: The government should establish formal breeding centres and subsequent sale of such cows and buffaloes to the farmers. Financial literacy: There is a need to take financial literacy through trusted sources like the LIC or Post offices to the villages, so that the larger population of the country also becomes a prime participant in economic growth. Crop insurance: The current models of crop insurance are factored basis rainfall, temperature and crop loss. However, a more robust model should take into account losses on account of pest attacks, quality deterioration. Job insurance: There are newer insurance products which insure jobs. The overall family income of a rural household also has a component of a non-farm job income from the informal economy (drivers, office boys, mechanics, salesmen, cleaners). This employment needs to be formalised and job losses prevented through social security programmes. Population control: The root cause of all of India’s farm woes are small land holdings, a consequence of our expanding population. A start needs to be made for a one-child programme, which can halve India’s population from the current 1.20 billion to 500 million by 2100.. A plan to double farm incomes needs to be implemented by all State governments, irrespective of their political affiliations, so as to ensure that India becomes a fully developed country in the next 50 years. Source : Business Line, GIRISH V AIVALLI
Views: 2360 Exambin
Types of Indian Sculpture | Wooden Sculpture, Sand Sculpture, Marble Sculpture, Bronze sculpture
 
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https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.exambin.app INDIAN SCULPTURE The sculptural traditions, forms, and styles of the civilizations of the Indian subcontinent. Sculpture was the favoured medium of artistic expression on the Indian subcontinent. Indian buildings were profusely adorned with it and indeed are often inseparable from it. The subject matter of Indian sculpture was almost invariably abstracted human forms that were used to instruct people in the truths of the Hindu, Buddhist, or Jain religions. The nude was used both to represent the body as a symbol of spirit and to reveal the imagined shapes of the gods. There is an almost complete suppression of individuality in Indian sculpture; this is because the figures are conceived of as shapes that are more perfect and final than anything to be found in the merely transitory appearance of human models. The multiple heads and arms of sculptured Hindu divinities were thought necessary to display the manifold attributes of these gods’ power. Types of Indian Sculpture: • Wooden Sculptures • Bronze Sculptures • Marble Sculptures • Stone Sculptures • Sand Sculptures Wooden Sculpture Indian wooden sculpture has marked its presence since ancient times and has been the evidence of artistic brilliance. Every region of India had developed its own unique style of wooden structures, marked with a distinct type of carving, strongly influenced by local traditions and the materials that were locally available. From the southern parts of India, the wooden sculptures and toys are popular for their intricate carving works and meticulous finishing. In Indian wood sculpture, idols of god, goddesses and demigods are the most preferred themes. Bronze Sculptures Sculpture of Bronzes immensely radiates a sense of immortality and powerfully reflects the fascination and mystery about the ancient cultures of Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism. The art of making Bronze sculptures began in the Indus Valley Civilization (2400-B.C.), where the Indus Bronze statuette of a slender-limbed "dancing girl" was found in Mohenjodaro. Marble Sculptures Entire artwork of marble sculptures in India bears the excellent style and patterns of finest craftsmanship that are achieved with quality. As per Historical evidences the art of marble sculpture reached at the peak during the Mughal rule. In Mughal dynasty, Shah Jahan's reign is marked for monumental Taj Mahal architectural achievements. He initiated the most important architectural change in the form of the use of marble in preparation of monuments or tombs instead of sandstone. Stone Sculptures Sarnath is one of the most beautiful sites in the world & sacred where the Lord Buddha delivered his first sermon, which was the introduction of Buddhism. The Lion Capital on top of one of pillar, which is recognized as the National Emblem of India, is from Sarnath. The Emperor Ashoka who worked in this life for spreading the Buddha's message of love and compassion visited Sarnath around 234 BC, and erected a Grand stupa. The main structure of the place has been enclosed and marked with the presence of a complex structure of monasteries that are half-ruined condition stupas. Dhamek Stupa is known for particular significance at Sarnath as it signifies the "seat of the holy Buddha", after he proclaimed his faith. Believed to be constructed 5th to 6th century, it is a cylindrical tower of around 30 meters high with a solid structure. But the sculptural beauty is maintained with all the architectural techniques. The trunk of the stupa is decorated using panels carved with geometric and floral designs. Sand Sculptures Sand sculpture, reminiscent of any Indian sculptures can be of multiple shape, size or form. Sand sculpture is native to Orissa which has later spread its root towards whole of India. It can include the above things- a castle, or created in a human, animal, plant or a fantasy form. As this art is comparatively a recent one, it didn’t have any historical references. Although not historically proved, the origin of this art is found in the Orissan myths. Sometimes even coloured sand is also used to create sculpture,. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Views: 6317 Exambin
Environment Impact Assessment Part 1
 
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Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Environmental Impact Assessment Developmental projects in the past were undertaken without any consideration to their environmental consequences. As a result the whole environment got polluted and degraded. In view of the colossal damage done to the environment, governments and public are now concerned about the environmental impacts of developmental activities. So, to assess the environmental impacts, the mechanism of Environmental Impact Assessment also known as EIA was introduced. EIA is a tool to anticipate the likely environmental impacts that may arise out of the proposed developmental activities and suggest measures and strategies to reduce them. EIA was introduced in India in 1978, with respect to river valley projects. Later the EIA legislation was enhanced to include other developmental sections since 1941. EIA comes under Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental projects 1994 under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Besides EIA, the Government of India under Environment (Protection) Act 1986 issued a number of other notifications, which are related to environmental impact assessment. EIA is now mandatory for 30 categories of projects, and these projects get Environmental Clearance (EC) only after the EIA requirements are fulfilled. Environmental clearance or the ‘go ahead’ signal is granted by the Impact Assessment Agency in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Projects that require clearance from central government can be broadly categorized into the following sectors • Industries • Mining • Thermal power plants • River valley projects • Infrastructure • Coastal Regulation Zone and • Nuclear power projects The important aspects of EIA are risk assessment, environmental management and Post product monitoring. Functions of EIA is to 1. Serve as a primary environmental tool with clear provisions. 2. Apply consistently to all proposals with potential environmental impacts. 3. Use scientific practice and suggest strategies for mitigation. 4. Address all possible factors such as short term, long term, small scale and large scale effects. 5. Consider sustainable aspects such as capacity for assimilation, carrying capacity, biodiversity protection etc... 6. Lay down a flexible approach for public involvement 7. Have a built-in mechanism of follow up and feedback. 8. Include mechanisms for monitoring, auditing and evaluation. In order to carry out an environmental impact assessment, the following are essential: 1. Assessment of existing environmental status. 2. Assessment of various factors of ecosystem (air, water, land, biological). 3. Analysis of adverse environmental impacts of the proposed project to be started. 4. Impact on people in the neighborhood. Benefits of EIA • EIA provides a cost effective method to eliminate or minimize the adverse impact of developmental projects. • EIA enables the decision makers to analyses the effect of developmental activities on the environment well before the developmental project is implemented. • EIA encourages the adaptation of mitigation strategies in the developmental plan. • EIA makes sure that the developmental plan is environmentally sound and within limits of the capacity of assimilation and regeneration of the ecosystem. • EIA links environment with development. The goal is to ensure environmentally safe and sustainable development. Environmental Components of EIA: The EIA process looks into the following components of the environment: • Air environment • Noise component : • Water environment • Biological environment • Land environment EIA Process and Procedures Steps in Preparation of EIA report • Collection of baseline data from primary and secondary sources; • Prediction of impacts based on past experience and mathematical modelling; • Evolution of impacts versus evaluation of net cost benefit; • Preparation of environmental management plans to reduce the impacts to the minimum; • Quantitative estimation of financial cost of monitoring plan and the mitigation measures. Environment Management Plan • Delineation of mitigation measures including prevention and control for each environmental component, rehabilitation and resettlement plan. EIA process: EIA process is cyclical with interaction between the various steps. 1. Screening 2. Scoping 3. Collection of baseline data 4. Impact prediction 5. Mitigation measures and EIA report 6. Public hearing 7. Decision making 8. Assessment of Alternatives, Delineation of Mitigation Measures and Environmental Impact Assessment Report 9. Risk assessment
Views: 9757 Exambin
Ancient Indian Architecture Part I
 
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Ancient Indian Architecture Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. The earliest remains of recognizable building activity in the India dates back to the Indus Valley cities. Ancient architecture of India: Ajanta caves AJANTA Caves are one of the world’s greatest historical monument recognized by UNESCO. Ajanta was discovered in 1819 A.D and were built as early as 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE. The village of Ajanta is in the Sahayadri hills, about 99 kms from Aurangabad a few miles away in a mammoth horseshoe-formed rock, there are 30 caves overlooking a gorge,each forming a room in the hill and some with inner rooms. Vijayanagara Empire Its ruins are located at present day Hampi in Karnataka. Four dynasties – Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu – ruled Vijayanagara from 1336 C.E. to 1646 C.E. It reached its climax in the end of 14th century. The Vitthala Temple amongst these is the finest example of ornate architecture with gopurams (temple entrance), halls, sanctum sanctorum and sabha mandapas. The temple also has a market street right in the middle and a richly carved step well (Pushkarni). Mahabodhi Temple In the sanctified town of Gaya, a holy structure that marks the path that the great ascetic took to gain divine enlightenment and became A Buddha. The temple was first constructed by the great emperor Ashoka, in 232 BCE and subsequent work was carried out by the rulers of Gupta dynasty. Konark Temple On the sparkling coasts of Bay of Bengal rests this edifice that honors the work of the masters of ancient times. The temple has an elaborate and intricate mammoth structure that depicts the chariot of the Sun God replete with 24 carved wheels, each of them 3 m in diameter, pulled by seven horses and guarded by two lions at the entrance that bravely crush elephants. It is an example of beautiful melee of science and architecture. THE WHEELS AT SUN TEMPLE KONARK SERVE AS ACCURATE SUN DIALS AND ARE INSPIRATION FOR THE MODERN DAY WATCHES Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal was built in 1632 AD by over twenty thousand artisans who worked over 22 years! The white marble was bought in from Makrana in Rajasthan and was transported by elephants. In its days of glory the Taj Mahal was adorned with no less than 28 types of precious stones, brought in from as far as Tibet and Persia. Bhimbetka Shelters The site spread over 10 km in length and about 3 km in width has more than 700 rock shelters, of which over 400 have paintings. The earliest human activities are known from the numerous stone tools including handaxes, cleavers and also the pebble tools. The landscape and the fauna surrounding the rock shelters is called Ratapani wildlife sanctuary in which the evidence of the trees and animals depicted in the paintings inside the shelter can still be found. Ellora Caves There are over 100 caves at the site, all excavated from the basalt cliff in Charanandri Hills, but only 34 are open to public 34 monasteries and temples are splendors where art and religion combines. each group represents deities and mythologies that were prevalent in the 1st millennium CE. The twelve caves of the Buddhist group speaks about the teachings of Buddhism. The ‘Cavern of the Ten Avatars’ is a majestic art piece constructed under the reign of Krishna I. The ethnicity of Jain group is well reflected by the sanctuaries carved by the Digambara sect of this religion. Chola temples The entire temple carved in granite is believed to be inspired by the Pallava architecture. The beautifully adorned 108 poses of the Bharata- Natyam on the walls reflects the rich culture during the chola dynasty. The beautiful series of carvings depicting the legend ruler Rajaraja conversing with his guru, is stunningly sculpted in rich colors which rewinds you to the time of king and queens. Mahabalipuram The temple is most famous for its depictions of the chariots of the warriors of the Mahbharata, called Rathas all of which are in a specifically designated form, some rising to as high as two or three storeys. There is another remarkable sculpture that adorns the temple walls which is called the Descent of the Ganges. The intricacy and ingenuity of the carvings are an example of the skill of the craftsman who constructed these temples way back in the 7th Century! Rani Ki Vav Situated in Patan, Gujarat, Rani Ki Vav is an ancient step-well, that was built by Rani Udaymati in 11th Century AD, to worship hallowed waters of Saraswati River. An exquisite example of subterranean architecture, Rani ki Vav is 64 meters long, 20 meters wide and 27 meters deep. It runs downwards upto a length of seven storeys. All of these storeys are carved with more 500 sculptures which represent humans, nymphs, gods and the kings in varying forms of skill and intricacy, with the central theme being the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
Views: 4358 Exambin
Buddhism and Jainism - Part 1 Buddhism – ancient history of India
 
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Music Credits : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0GcSnHjvN8 Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the 6th lesson in Indian history in this you will see about Buddhism – ancient history of India, which we hope is usefull for your jainism and buddhism upsc exams, Certain questions have been asked about buddhism upsc. Gautama Buddha founded Buddhism and is known as Supreme Buddha. Symbols of 5 great events of Buddha’s Life: • Buddha’s Birth: Lotus & Bull. • The Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana): Horse. • Enlightenment (Nirvana): Bodhi Tree. • First Sermon (Dhammachakraparivartan): Wheel. • Death (Parinirvana): Stupa. Four Noble Truths: Four noble truths were taught by Buddha in Dhammachakraparivartan. They are the core teachings of Buddhism. • Sorrow: The world is full of sorrow and everything from birth to death brings sorrows in life. • Cause of Sorrow: The cause of sorrows is desire. It is the un-fulfillment of human desires which leads him to the vicious cycle of births and rebirths. • Prevention of Sorrow: It is possible to prevent sorrow. Man can get rid of sorrow by triumphing over the desires. • The path of Prevention of Sorrow: Man can avoid sorrow by avoiding extremes of life and following middle path or Madhyam Patipada. The life of moderation and self-control along with pursuance of 8 fold path is essential to prevent the sorrow. The Eightfold Path of Buddhism: They are also called the Middle Path and is the system of following these eight divisions of the path to achieve spiritual enlightenment and cease suffering: • Right understanding • Right though • Right speech • Right conduct • Right means of making a living • Right mental attitude or effort. • Right mindfulness • Right concentration Buddhist Literature: • Tripitaka: Tripitaka or Three Baskets is a buddhism explained traditional term used for various Buddhist scriptures. It is known as Pali Canon in English. The three pitakas are Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka. • Sutta Pitaka. • Vinaya Pitaka • Abhidhamma Pitaka Some terminologies associated with Buddhism • Nirvana • Jatakas • Buddha Charita • Bodhi Vamsa. Types of Buddhism • Hinayana: a) Hînayâna is the orthodox, conservative schools of Buddhism b) Don’t believe in Idol Worship and try to attain individual salvation through self-discipline and meditation. c) Asoka Patronized Hinayana d) Pali the language of masses was use by the Hinayana scholars. e) It is the dominant form of religion in Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Burma. • Mahayana: a) Mahayana Buddhism, also known as the Great Vehicle, is the form of Buddhism prominent in North Asia, including China, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea, and Japan. Land, Zen, and Vajrayana (or Tantric) Buddhism. • Vajrayana Buddhism a) The Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism spread to China, Mongolia, and Tibet. b) Vajrayana Buddhists recognize a large body of Buddhist Tantras, some of which are also included in Chinese and Japanese collections of Buddhist literature, and versions of a few even in the Pali Canon. • Zen Buddhism a) is a form of Buddhism that became popular in China, Korea and Japan and that lays special emphasis on meditation. b) Zen places less emphasis on scriptures than some other forms of Buddhism and prefers to focus on direct spiritual breakthroughs to truth. c) Zen Buddhist teaching is often full of paradox, in order to loosen the grip of the ego and to facilitate the penetration into the realm of the True Self or Formless Self, which is equated with the Buddha himself. Bodhisattva: A Bodhisattva means one who has essence of enlightenment. Anyone who has a spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all is a Bodhisattva. It’s a very popular subject in Buddhist art. A bodhisattva is bound to enlighten and refers to all who are destined to become Buddha in this life or another life. There are celestial bodhisattvas which are manifestations of Gautama Buddha. • Buddhist Shrines: Astamahasthanas: These are 8 great holy places. They are as follows: a) Lumbini: Birth of Buddha. b) Bodhgaya: enlightenment of Buddha. c) Sarnath: First sermon or Dhammachakraparivartan. d) Kushinagar: Death or Mahaparinirvana. Along with them, Sravasti, Sankasya, Rajgir and Vaishali are known as Astamahasthanas. • Religious places: a) Amaravati b) Nagarjunkonda c) Ajanta Caves d) Angkor Wat (Cambodia) e) Bodhi Tree in Bodh Gaya f) Borobudur (Indonesia) g) Bamyan Caves (Afghanistan) h) Ellora Caves Royal Patronage to Buddhism Emperor Ashoka Maurya, Kanishka, and ruler of Magadha emperor Bimbisara from India and Countries like Laos, Cambodia, Tibet, Thailand, some parts of China, Japan and Malaysia gave royal patronage to Buddhism.
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Wildlife conservation in india National Parks , Wildlife Sanctuary
 
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Link for National Park is https://youtu.be/2wrl9uehGBA?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Link for Wildlife Sanctuary is: https://youtu.be/RenlL4zrF2U?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Link for Biosphere Reserve: https://youtu.be/93koXCtOX58?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcVgKv9BfdHMKt7KTmFypzFy Wildlife Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), it can be classified as follows : Normal Species. Endangered Species Vulnerable Species Rare Species Endemic Species Extinct Species Forest & Wildlife Protection Programmes by Government In 1972, a comprehensive Wildlife Act was enacted by Central Government of India lead by Ms Indira Gandhi, which provides the main legal framework for conservation and protection of wildlife in India. The two main objectives of the Act are : • to provide protection to the endangered species listed in the schedule of the Act and • to provide legal support to the conservation areas of the country classified as National parks, sanctuaries and closed areas. For the purpose of effective conservation of flora and fauna, special steps have been initiated by the Government of India in collaboration with UNESCO’s ‘Man and Biosphere Programme’. There are 92 National parks and 492 wildlife sanctuaries covering an area of 15.67 million hectares in the country. National Park • it is a Relatively large area consisting of one or more ecosystems, and it operates at National Level. • No human activity or settlement allowed i.e. human interference is totally prohibited • Villagers cannot graze their animals and national parks have Extremely strict rules about jungle produce collection for ex. Honey To know further about national parks in India, refer to our video on : Top 10 National Park in India Wildlife Sanctuary • In wildlife sanctuary Regulated human activities are allowed for example : Grazing of animals, Firewood collection and Tourism. • It can be created for a particular species which is not the case with national parks; • Wildlife Sanctuary operates at State Level. • A sanctuary can be upgraded to a National park but not vice versa To know further about Wildlife sanctuary in India, refer to our video on : Top 10 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India -------------------------------------------------------------- India has also introduced many Special schemes like Project Tiger (1973) and Project Elephant (1992) to conserve some endangered species and their habitat in a sustainable manner. We will now look at a few of those now. 1) Project Tiger : • There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority(NTCA). • India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2011 and 2,226 in 2014.The total number of wild tigers has risen to 3,891 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum. 2) Project Elephant • Project Elephant (PE) is initiated for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors. • It also seeks to address the issues of human-elephant conflict and welfare of domesticated elephants. The Project is being implemented in 13 States / Union Territories. • Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants ( MIKE ) 3) Project Snow Leopard • Project Snow Leopard aims To safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high altitude wildlife populations and their habitats. • Snow Leopard is globally endangered species as well as the most important flagship species of the mountain region. 4) Sea Turtle Project • With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. • The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa. Biosphere Reserve A Biosphere Reserve is a unique representation of ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. The Biosphere Reserve aims at achieving the three objective as depicted . Core zone Buffer zone Transition zone Conservation Reserves • Particularly the areas adjacent to National Parks and Sanctuaries and the areas which link one Protected Area with another can also be declared as conservation reserves. Community Reserves • Can be declared by the State Government in any private or community land, not comprised within a National Park, Sanctuary or a Conservation Reserve To know further about biosphere reserves in India, refer to our video on : Top 10 Biosphere Reserves in India UNESCO list | Biosphere Reserves in a nutshell
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(Part 1) Common man’s Guide to How GST works? | GST simple explanation – GST for UPSC, What is GST
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about Common man’s Guide to How GST works?. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: GST Made Simple: A Complete Guide to Goods and Services Tax in India ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2ITB0Wl Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this lesson you will be knowing about Three important questions How GST works in India, how gst impacts common man, how gst work. ------------------------ To get answers for these we will see gst simple explanation, gst simple explanation India. Typically gst in India is not the same as in the world. This gst lecture is prepared specifically for gst for upsc, gst for ias, gst ssc, topics in mind. However, it is generally discussing what is gst, what is gst in India, gst rate structure in India, gst full form and varous other key aspects of the gst. GST India 2017 reveals about India gst basic concepts and this is for gst explained upsc. The lecture gst explained in English. We don’t have gst explained in hindi version as of now. We have covered this with gst examples India, gst example India. What is GST? GST’s Expansion is Goods and Services Tax. As the name implies it is the single tax system for both Goods sold physically and the services rendered. We can define GST like this, Goods and Services Tax is a single tax rate levied on the manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services at a national level. Before seeing how GST is fit into the Indian taxation system lets see what are the existing tax systems in India. Types of Taxes in India There are two kinds of taxes exist in India. • One is Direct Taxes like Corporate tax, Income tax – which is paid by directly by individual to the government depends upons his income. • And the other one is Indirect Taxes which is paid by a representative for example when we buy anything in the super market the MRP includes taxes and the tax is remitted to the Govt by the retailer after consolidating his sales. Indirect taxes is collected by both the Central and state governments at different levels of production and sales. Central Govt - Excise Duty on Production - Service Tax on services rendered within India - Customs Duty on imports are some the taxes levied by central government State Govt - Central Sales Tax OR Value Added tax at each level of Sales like Wholesaler, Distributor and Retailer. - Entertainment Tax, Luxury tax , Lottery Tax etc by the state governments. Which taxes will be replaces by GST? GST will be substituting all indirect tax levied by state and central government. Exports and direct tax like income tax, corporate tax and capital gain tax will not be affected by GST. . GST Rates Excluded Items from GST : 1. Customs Duty is kept outside the purview of GST 2. Oil and Natural gas 3. Electricity 4. Alcohol for Human Consumption The taxes imposed to these items shall be continued as per the structure before GST implementation. Types of GST. GST is levied only on the value-added at every stage of production. This will ensure that there is no cascading effect of taxes (tax on tax paid) on inputs that are used in manufacturing of goods. Normally most of the countries take single GST system. But we in India going for Double GST where states will also will be able to collect taxes on certain scenarios. The proposed tax system will take the form of “dual GST” which is concurrently levied by central and state government. This will comprise of: • Central GST (CGST) which will be levied by Centre • State GST (SGST) Which will be levied by State • Integrated GST (IGST) – which will be levied by Central Government on inter-State supply of goods and services.   Example : Now let us look at two real-time examples of the taxation to arrive at a better understanding of the taxation system on how it deals with avoiding cascading effect and combining all the indirect taxes. First, we will see what will happen when we combine all taxes into a single taxation.   Now we will see how it reduces the cascading effect that is tax on taxes, I am taking a software which is sold as a product like Microsoft Windows at various levels of its sales cycle for illustration.   Though it is projected as game changer it has a few disadvantages like 1. As advertised it is not single taxation still it has CGST and SGST which taxed separately 2. States may lose revenue (many considerations proposed to overcome this) 3. Tax system can only improve the nation on paper. Real growth does not depends on taxation methods. Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
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Preamble and Citizenship Part 2 - NRI, Persons Indian origin, Overseas citizenship  India
 
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Non-resident Indian Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin (NRI-PIO), also called Overseas Indians or Indian Diaspora, are people of Indian birth or descent who live outside the Republic of India. The term non-resident refers only to the tax status of a person who, as per section 6 of the Income-tax Act of 1961, has not resided in India for a specified period for the purposes of the Income Tax Act. The rates of income tax are different for persons who are "resident in India" and for NRIs. For the purposes of the Income Tax Act, "residence in India" requires stay in India of at least 182 days in a financial year or 365 days spread out over four consecutive years AND at least 60 days in that year. Persons of Indian origin: Persons of Indian origin (PIO) scheme was launched in 1999 and the PIO card was issued to any person currently holding foreign passport, who can prove their Indian origin up to three generations before. What is Persons of Indian origin card? • PIO cards are issued to individuals who are either citizens or naturalized citizens of another country, but are of Indian origin, through their parents. • Citizens of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and other countries as may be specified by the central government are not eligible for grant of PIO card. • The PIO card must be produced alongside the foreign passport when entering or departing any port in India. • A PIO card is generally valid for a period of fifteen years from the date of issue. Benefits of a PIO card (i) PIO card holders do not require a visa to visit India for a period of 15 years from the date of issue of the PIO card. (ii) They are exempted from registration at FRRO/FRO if their stay does not exceeds 180 days, Incase if the stay exceeds 180 days, they shall have to register with FRRO/ FRO within the next 30 days. • Acquisition, holding, transfer and disposal of immovable properties in India, except agricultural/ plantation properties • Admission of children to educational institutions in India under general category quota for NRIs, including medical and engineering college, IITs, IIMs etc. • Availing various housing schemes of LIC of India, State Government and Central Government agencies all future benefits that would be exempted to NRIs would also be available to the PIO card holders. Overseas citizenship of India: Introduced in August 2005, the overseas citizenship of India (OCI) scheme was launched during the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas convention at Hyderabad in 2006. What is overseas citizenship of India card? • OCI cards are given to those who have taken citizenship in other countries, apart from India, but have Indian origin roots. • Therefore, Overseas Citizenship of India is not an actual citizenship of India and thus, does not amount to dual citizenship or dual nationality. BENEFITs of OCI CARD: • A registered Overseas Citizen of India is granted multiple entry, multipurpose, life-long visa for visiting India. • he/she is exempted from registration with Foreign Regional Registration Officer or Foreign Registration Officer for any length of stay in India, • is entitled to general 'parity with Non-Resident Indians in respect of all facilities available to them in economic, financial and educational fields • In 2015 Indian Parliament passed a bill to amend the Citizenship Act 1955 to remove disparity between Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) and Overseas Citizens of India (OCI) cardholders. PIO card Vs OCI cards Both the cards are aimed at providing long-term residency rights to people of Indian origin and to help them participate in economic and educational activities in India. If you are a PIO cardholder, and want to become an Indian citizen again, you need to reside in India for minimum seven years before making an application for grant of Indian citizenship. An OCI cardholder may be granted Indian citizenship after five years from the date of registration provided he/she stays for one year in India before making application. How will merging help? It was envisaged that merger of the card would facilitate visa-free travel to India, rights of residency and participation in business and educational activities in the country. Dual Citizenship: It is generally difficult to have dual citizenship of India and another country, due to the provisions for loss of Indian nationality when an Indian national naturalizes in another country, and the requirement to renounce one's existing citizenships when naturalizing in India A minor child of Indian origins may hold dual citizenship of India and another country. So that the minor can decide within six months of completing 18 years of age as to whether he/she prefers Indian citizenship.
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Introduction to Computers &  Characteristics of computer - Computer Awareness Lesson 1
 
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Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this lesson we are going to learn about 5 Generations of Computers, History of Computers, Computer awareness Lesson, Computer awareness, Fundamentals of Computer, basics of computer, what is a computer. Five generations of computers is discussed briefly. The characteristics of computer System, characteristics of computer System in English is briefly discussed we have given the transcript of this video below. Computer awareness for bank po, computer awareness for sbi po, computer awareness for ibps po all will be having importance to the basics of computer systems. This lesson Fundamental of computer in English, computer awareness in English. 1. Concept of Computer System A computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes this data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future reference and usage. 2. Characterstics of Computer • Speed : A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second. • Accuracy : A computer’s accuracy is consistently high; if there are errors, they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer. • Reliability : The output generated by the computer is very reliable as long as the data is reliable. • Memory/Storage Capacity : The computer can store large volumes of data and makes the retrieval of data an easy task. • Versatility: The computer can accomplish many different things. It can accept information through various i/o devices, perform arithmetic and logic operations, generate a variety of outputs and forms, etc. • Automation: Once the instructions are fed into computer it works automatically without any human intervention. • Diligence: A computer will never fail to perform its task due to distraction or laziness. • Convenience: Computers are usually easy to access, and allow people to find information easily that without a would be very difficult. • Flexibility: Computers can be used for entertainment, for business, by people who hold different ideals or who have varied goals.   Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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17 Types of Computers and Uses of Computers | Computer Awareness Lesson 3
 
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We hope this video has given you some insights about 17 types of computer and its uses. If you would like to know more here is the reference book used: Computer Basics Absolute Beginner's Guide, Windows 8 Edition, ------------------------------ Amazon: https://amzn.to/2J7PIwv Flipkart : http://fkrt.it/gECUwLuuuN Description Download our app : https://www.exambin.com/app Learn online : https://www.exambin.com/learn In this lesson we are going to learn Types of Computers, Uses of Computers, Analog computer, Digital Computer, hybrid computer, general purpose computer, special purpose computer, Super Computer, Mainframe Computer, Micro Computer. All types of computers are discussed, for better understanding we have given the transcript of this video below. Computer awareness for bank po, computer awareness for sbi po, computer awareness for ibps po all will be having importance to the basics of computer systems. This lesson Fundamental of computer in English, computer awareness in English. 5. Types of Computers Based on Work Analog The analog computers are computer systems that measure variations in quantities such as temperature, voltage, speed, etc. Analog computers are known to measure the data that varies continuously Digital Digital computers are the computer systems that count things by manipulation of certain discontinuous numbers and letters through representation of binary digits (also called bits) in contrast to analog computers that measures the variations in quantities). Hybrid Hybrid computers as the name suggests are a good mix of analog as well as digital computers, using an analog computer front-end, which is then fed into a digital computer’s repetitive process. Hybrid computers are used for scientific calculations, in defence sector. 6. Based on purpose General Purpose These computers are designed to work on different types of applications. In these types of computers the programs are not stored permanently rather programs are input at the time of their execution. Personal computers, including desktops, notebooks, smart phones and tablets, are all examples of general-purpose computers. Special Purpose Special-Purpose computers are task specific computers and are designed to solve a particular problem. They are also known as dedicated computers, because these computers are dedicated to perform a single particular task repetitively. Automated Teller Machines are perfect example of this. ATMs are used for a specific task and they were programmed to do that only. 7. Based on Memory Size and Performance Super Computer: They are focused on performing specific actions and follow heavy extremely intense and critical calculations like weather forecasting, fluid dynamics etc. They are generally used by scientists and are very powerful and expensive. The speed with which they operate is highly blazing. Mainframe Computer: They are the typical large computing machines which occupied extremely large space, more than the size of the rooms today. They were capable of operating multiple users via single interface and typically operated more than million instructions per second. Mini Computer: They are the intermediate solutions between Mainframe computers and Micro Computers. And they are also known as mid-range computers. Micro Computer: Microcomputers came into picture as computers having single chip micro processors. They are the most common computers being used for domestic / commercial purposes now a days. They also include solutions like Desktop Computers, Game Consoles, Tablet Computers, and Smart Phones etc. They are basically portable and carry very less space.   8. Types of Personal Computers Tower model This model of personal computer refers to a computer in which the power supply, motherboard, and other mass storage devices are stacked on top of each other in a cabinet. Desktop model Desktop model means computer that are designed to fit comfortably on top of a desk, with the monitor sitting on top of the computer. Notebook computer Also called ultra book. These are extremely popular because they are extremely lightweight and portable. Laptop computer Laptop are now a days also called notebook computers .These are small and portable .You can make them sit on your lap and work on them.   9. Uses of Computers In the Field of Education In the Field of Office In the Field of Medicine In the Field of Defence Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Views: 16394 Exambin
Ancient Indian Architecture  - Part IV Tempe Architecture
 
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Link 01 - https://youtu.be/QTh9l7WLxl4 Link 02 – https://youtu.be/oUssv4vEU4w Link 03 - https://youtu.be/WIcxPIv2lWE Temple Architecture Temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions during ancient India. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. In the initial stages of its evolution, the temples of North and South India were distinguished on the basis of some specific features like Shikhara and Gopurams which are gateways. In the north Indian temples, the Shikhara remained the most prominent component while the gateway was generally unassuming. The most prominent features of South Indian temples were enclosures around the temples and the Gopurams (huge gateways). Design The very essence of a Hindu temple is believed to have developed from the ideology that all things are one and everything is associated. The four essential and significant principles which are also aims of human life according to Indian philosophy are the quests for artha - wealth and prosperity; Kama - pleasure; dharma - moral life and virtues; and moksha - self-knowledge and realization. The mathematically structured spaces, intricate artworks, decorated and carved pillars and statues of Hindu deities illustrates and values such philosophies. Layout The basic elements that comprise a Hindu Temple are given below: Garbhagriha: which Literally means womb-house. is a cave-like sanctum which houses the main icon of the temple. In earlier times, it was a small cubicle with one entrance. In later periods, it grew into a larger chamber. Mandapa: is The entrance to the temple. It could be a portico or a colonnaded hall where worshippers stand. Shikhara/Vimana: it is from the 5th century CE. It is a mountain-like structure on top. In north Indian Nagara style, it is called Shikhara and is curved in shape whereas In the south indian Dravida style, it is like a pyramidal tower which is called Vimana. Amalaka: Stone-like disc seen at the top of the temple. Mostly in north Indian temples. Kalasha: It is the topmost part of the temple. Mainly seen in north Indian styles. Antarala: It is a vestibule between the Garbhagriha and the Mandapa. Jagati: This is common in north Indian temples and is a raised platform where devotees can sit and pray. Vahana: It is the vehicle of the main deity which along with the standard pillar or Dhvaj are placed axially Different Styles Nagara The Nagara style that is observed in different parts of India with varied elaborations in different localities has two particular features. a facet or vertical offset projection on the plan of the sanctum and shikhara above, or other structure. It is generally carried up from the bottom of the temple to the superstructure. The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple in Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh is a fine example of this style. Dravidian Dravidian temple architecture evolved in South India, predominantly comprises of temples built of sandstone, soapstone or granite and is characterized by its pyramidal tower. Unlike the nagara temple, the dravida temple is enclosed within a compound wall. The vimana is like a stepped pyramid that rise up geometrically rather than the curving shikhara of north India. The Mandapas/Mandapams or porches are built in such a way that these precede and cover the door that leads to the cell. The Gopurams/Gopuras or elaborate gateway-towers or gate-pyramids encloses the temples. Badami-chalukya The foundation of cave temple architecture on the banks of Malaprabha River originated in Karnataka during 500 and 757 CE. In Aihole, known as the "Cradle of Indian architecture," there are over 150 temples scattered around the village. The Lad Khan Temple is the oldest. The Durga Temple is notable for its semi-circular apse, elevated plinth and the gallery that encircles the sanctum sanctorum. Kalyani Chalukya The Western Chalukya architecture or Kalyani Chalukya style of architecture is a specific style of decorative architecture that originated from the old dravida style and defines the Karnata dravida tradition. Evolved during 11th century it prospered for around 150 years till 1200 CE during the reign of Western Chalukya Empire in the Tungabhadra region of Karnataka and saw construction of around 50 temples. Kalinga : The three styles are Pidha Deula, Rekha Deula and Khakhara Deula with the first two linked with Shiva, Surya and Vishnu and the latter is predominantly associated with Goddesses Durga and Chamunda. Again the first (Pidha Deula) type comprises of outer halls for offerings and dancing while the latter two (Rekha and Khakhara Deula) comprise of the sanctum sanctorum.
Views: 1655 Exambin
Soils of India - Part 1 - Indian Geography
 
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Welcome back to the next lesson in Indian Geography in this lesson we would be seeing about Soils of India Soil is an important layer of earth’s outermost layer known as crust. It is the mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, water and air and other organisms. Let us see How is Soil Formed? Soil originally comes from rocks, also called the ‘parent material’. Soil formation starts when rock is exposed to the atmosphere. Properties of a soil will depend upon the type of parent material and how the soil is formed. Atmospheric conditions play a vital role in both the process and rate of physical and chemical decomposition of the parent material. Types of Soil • Alluvial soils • Black soils • Red soils • Laterite and Lateritic soils • Forest and Mountain soils • Arid and Desert soils • Saline and Alkaline soils and Alluvial Soils • Alluvial soils are formed mainly due to silt deposited by Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra rivers. • Rocks of the Himalayas form the parent material. Thus the parent material of these soils is of transported origin. Characteristics of Alluvial Soils • They are immature and have weak profiles due to their recent origin. • Most of the soil is Sandy and clayey soils are common. • The soil is porous because of its loamy (equal proportion of sand and clay) nature. Distribution of Alluvial Soils in India • They also occur in deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery, where they are called deltaic alluvium (coastal alluvium) • Some alluvial soils are found in the Narmada, Tapi valleys and Northern parts of Gujarat. Crops in Alluvial Soils • They yield splendid crops of rice, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, jute, maize, oilseeds, vegetables and fruits. Black Soils • The parent material for most of the black soil are the volcanic rocks that were formed in the Deccan Plateau (Deccan and the Rajmahal trap). • In Tamil Nadu, gneisses and schists form the parent material. The former are sufficiently deep while the later are generally shallow. Colour of Black Soils • Various tints of the black colour such as deep black, medium black, shallow black , a mixture of red and black may be found in this group of soils. Chemical Composition of Black Soils Distribution of Black Soils Crops in Black Soils Red Soils • The main parent rocks are crystalline and metamorphic rocks like acid granites, gneisses and quartzites. Characteristics of Red Soils • The texture of these soils can vary from sand to clay, the majority being loams. Chemical Composition of Red Soils • They are acidic mainly due to the nature of the parent rocks. The alkali content is fair. • They are poor in lime, magnesia, phosphates, nitrogen and humus. • They are fairly rich in potash and potassium. Color of Red Soils • The red colour is due to the presence of iron oxide. • When limestone, granites, gneisses and quartzites are eroded the clay enclosed within the rocks remains intact with other forms of non-soluble materials. • In oxidizing conditions, rust or iron oxide develops in the clay, Distribution of Red Soils • These soils mostly occur in the regions of low rainfall. • Other regions with red soil include parts of Karnataka, south-east of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Chota Nagpur plateau; parts of south Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh; Aravalis and the eastern half of Rajasthan (Mewar or Marwar Plateau), parts of North-Eastern states. Crops in Red Soils • The red soils, with the proper use of fertilizers and irrigation techniques, give good yield of cotton, wheat, rice, pulses, millets, tobacco, oil seeds, potatoes and fruits. Laterite – Lateritic Soils • Laterite soils are mostly the end products of weathering. • Heavy rainfall promotes leaching (nutrients gets washed away by water) of soil whereby lime and silica are leached away and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminium compounds is left behind. Chemical composition of Laterite – Lateritic Soils • Laterite soils are rich in bauxite or ferric oxides. • They are very poor in lime, magnesia, potash and nitrogen. • Sometimes, the phosphate content may be high in the form of iron phosphate. Distribution of Laterite – Lateritic Soils • Laterite soils cover an area of 2.48 lakh sq km. •Eastern Ghats, the Rajmahal Hills, Vindhyan, Satpuras and Malwa Plateau. They are well developed in south Maharashtra, parts of Karnataka etc. and are widely scattered in other regions. Crops in Laterite – Lateritic Soils • Laterite soils lack fertility due to intensive leaching. plantation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, cinchona, coconut, etc.
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BRICS International Organization
 
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What is BRICS? • BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. • BRIC started as a formal grouping in 2006 on the margins of G8 outreach summit. • Since 2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits. 8th summit in 2016 was held in Goa and BIMSTEC countries were invited for a joint summit as per the tradition. 9th summit in 2017 was held in China FEATURES OF BRICS/brics countries objectives: • Represents 3 Billion People. (40% of World Population) • Accounts for $20 Trillion of GDP which is growing at 28% Growth Rate. • First Summit in 2009, in the midst of Global Recession. • No European/US as a member. • Idea to form this group was conceived by Goldman Sachs. MAJOR ISSUES AND CONCERNS FACED BY BRICS: o Trade and investment o Infrastructure and industrial development o Cultural exchange and tourism What is the Significance of BRICS? • BRICS cooperation has two pillars – consultation on issues of mutual interest through meetings of Leaders as well as of Ministers of Finance, Trade, Health, S&T, Education, Agriculture, Communication, Labor, etc. • Focused on “greater people-to-people participation” during the BRICS events like BRICS Film Festival, BRICS Wellness Forum, BRICS Youth Forum and BRICS Friendship Cities Conclave held throughout the year across the country. • The New Development Bank (NDB) and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) are the financial mechanism under BRICS. • CRA proposes to provide short-term liquidity support to the members through currency swaps to help mitigating BOP crisis situation, if such a situation arises. • It would also contribute to strengthening the global financial safety net and complement existing international arrangements (from IMF) as an additional line of defense. • BRICS Credit Rating Agency may come in near future to challenge the monopoly of the West • In the current global political and economic scenario where protectionism and patriotism is on the rise, BRICS can become the bulwark of new globalization and may create new world order driven by emerging economies. Highlights of the 8th BRICS Summit: GOA INDIA in 2016 • Theme: “Building Responsive, Inclusive and Collective Solutions.” • Adoption of “Goa Declaration” a document of 27 pages and 110 pointers. • BRICS: Encompasses 43% of the world population, 30% of the world GDP and 17% share in the world trade. • Institution building to further deepen institutionalize BRICS cooperation; • Implementation of the decisions from previous Summits; • Integrating the existing cooperation mechanisms; • Continuity, i.e., continuation of mutually agreed existing BRICS cooperation mechanisms. Major Outcomes of the BRICS Goa Summit • Reiterated determination to use all policy tools to achieve the goal of sustainable and inclusive growth. BRICS called for tackling terrorism, early adoption of CCIT • Called upon all nations to adopt a comprehensive approach in combating terrorism, violent extremism, radicalization, and recruitment, movement of terrorists including foreign terrorists and blocking sources of financing terrorism. • It further called upon for the early adoption of CCIT (Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism) in the UN General Assembly without any further delay. • It also appreciated the Paris Climate Agreement and its imminent entry into force on 4 November. UN Reforms • India is one among the many countries that is worried about the weakening of international institutions and the tendency to impose unilateral preferences over others. • BRICS called for urgent need to reforms of the United Nations, including UN Security Council, to increase representation of developing countries. Reaffirmed commitment to the FATF (Financial Action Task Force) • Reaffirmed commitment to the FATF (Financial Action Task Force) and swift, effective and universal implementation of FATF on combating terrorist financing, including effective implementation of its operational plan. India's Role in BRICS: India since the inception of BRICS has played an important and active role. It attaches high importance to the BRICS forum for promoting global economic growth, peace and stability. Co-operation on the economic front is one of the focus areas of India's policy towards BRIC. India sees BRICS as a platform to build multilateral relations with Latin American, African and Asian countries. India has also played an important role in the setting up of New Development Bank. Also for India, co-operation with the BRICs is very important in terms of addressing its food and energy security issues, and combating terrorism. WHAT CAN WE EXPECT AT 2025? The BRICS will significantly increase their share in the world economy and trade. A new global financial system with a significant presence of these countries, compared with the current situation, will be created.
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Buddhism and Jainism - Part 2 Jainism – ancient history of india l jainism upsc
 
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Music Credits : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0GcS... Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Welcome back to the 7th lesson in Indian history in which you will see about Jainism indian history/ jainism lecture for upsc, which we hope is usefull for your jainism and buddhism upsc exams, Certain questions have been asked about buddhism upsc. JAINISM Origin of Jainism: • In ancient history of India There were 24 Tirthankaras The first was Rishabhanath and the last was Vardhamana Mahavira, • Parshvanatha 23rd Tirthankara was a historical figure and flourished 250 yrs before Mahavira. He was a prince who abandoned the throne and led the life of an ascetic • Teachings of jainism Parsvanatha: Ahimsa which means Non-injury, Satya is for Non-lying, Asteya for Non-stealing, and Aparigraha: Non-possession. • It is believed that the Jainism existed centuries ago and was revived by Mahavira. Causes for the Rise of Jainism: • Division of society in 4 Varna’s i.e segment ( Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras) • Desires of Vaishyas to improve social status. • Reaction of Kshatriyas to Brahmins supremacy in Hindu • New agricultural economy • The reaction of commoners lord Mahavira He was born to father Siddhartha head of Jnatrika Clan and mother Trishla who is the sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka. How did Mahavira gained the Supreme Knowledge (keval gyan): • He was educated in all branches of knowledge • At the age of 30 after the death of his parents, he renounced his family, became an • In the 13th year of asceticism, on the 10th day of Vaisakha, outside the town of Jimbhikagrama Mahavira attained the Supreme knowledge. Jain Tirthankaras – Symbols and Instruments of Knowledge: The symbol for the 1st Jain Tirthankar Rishabhanatha (Adinatha) is bull The 23rd Jain Tirthankar Parshvanatha has a snake as symbol and the last Jain Tirthankar Mahavir has Lion as a symbol Five instruments of knowledge are: "Mati Jnana" - Perception through activity of sense organs, "Shruta Jnana" - Knowledge revealed by scriptures, "Avadhi Jnana" - Clairvoyant perception, "Manahparyaya Jnana" - Telepathic knowledge and "Keval Jnana" - Temporal knowledge or Omniscience. Teachings of Mahavira: The teachings of Jain tirthankaras are compiled in 12 Angas @ Vallabhi The Principles of Jainism can be summed up as: 1. Mahavira rejected Vedas and Vedic rituals. 2. Mahavira did not believe in the existence of God. He said that Universe is the product of nature which was the outcome of cause and effect. The Man is the architect of his own destiny. 3. Mahavira believed in “karma” and transmigration of the soul (Atma).. On good or bad karmas, the soul creates its own present or future. The body dies, but the soul is immortal. 4. Jains lay great emphasis on Equality.man may be good or bad according to his karma and not on his birth. 5. Jiva acts, feels and wills. It suffers and dies. Atma is eternal and is born and reborn Triratnas of Jainism: 1. Full Knowledge 2. Action 3. Liberation Main principles and Essence of Jainism are: 1. Non-violence which is termed as ahimsa 2. anekāntavāda: 3. Non-attachment which is termed as aparigraha 4. Satya, 'truth' 5. Asteya, 'not stealing': 6. Brahmacharya Sections of Jainism: Shwetambara (white-clad) is a term describing its ascetic’s practice of wearing white clothes. Digambara (sky-clad) Jain’s is a term describing its ascetics practice do not wear any clothesAccording to Digambar tradition, Mahavira, the last Jain Tirthankara, never married. The Digambars believe that after attaining enlightenment, Mahavira was free from human activities like hunger, thirst, and sleep. Spread of Jainism • Used prakrit (common language) for preaching instead of sanskrit • Jain followers led by Chandragupta Maurya & Bhadrabahu left for south (Karnataka) Immigrants spread Jainism in south India. • 1st Jain council was held at Pataliputra led by Sthalbahu in the beginning of 3rd century BC & 2nd Jain council was held at Valabhi in 5th century BC where 12 Anagas of Swetambars were finally compiled • Jainism has between four and five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. • Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Europe, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname, Fiji, and the United States Decline of Jainism • No strong patronage from the royal families to continue the religion with the exception of North India Bimbisara, Aiathasatru, Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Kharavela and Gangs dynasty, Kadambs dynasty, Amogavarsha, Siddhraj Jai Singh, and Kum Arapala in South India Contribution of Jainism:1st serious attempt to mitigate the evils of Varna system and the ritualistic Vedic religion.Out of Suraseni Prakrit, Marathi language grew.
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Roadmap to Indian President Election 2017 | The first 13 Indian Presidents
 
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Audio Credits : "Yggdrasil" by Fred Bouchal General Awareness: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcX2gmfJ8DZg-VdS52RA0MEC Vocabulary Booster: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcWe4PMHJLQ7RZP8SRBrJOr4 Here We will see about the first 13 Indian Presidents. Name Birth–Death Elected Took office Left office Rajendra Prasad 1884–1963 1952 & 1957 26 January 1950 12 May 1962 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 1888–1975 1962 13 May 1962 13 May 1967 Zakir Husain 1897–1969 1967 13 May 1967 3 May 1969 Varahagiri Venkata Giri 1894–1980 – 3 May 1969 20 July 1969 Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed 1905–1977 1974 24 August 1974 11 February 1977 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 1913–1996 1977 25 July 1977 25 July 1982 Giani Zail Singh 1916–1994 1982 25 July 1982 25 July 1987 Ramaswamy Venkataraman 1910–2009 1987 25 July 1987 25 July 1992 Shankar Dayal Sharma 1918–1999 1992 25 July 1992 25 July 1997 Kocheril Raman Narayanan 1920–2005 1997 25 July 1997 25 July 2002 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 1931–2015 2002 25 July 2002 25 July 2007 Pratibha Patil 1934– 2007 25 July 2007 25 July 2012 Pranab Mukherjee 1935– 2012 25 July 2012 Incumbent Subscribe to our channel for continuous updates ------------------------------------------------- Visit our website for Free regular updates: https://www.exambin.com Follow us on: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exam.ibps Twitter. https://www.twitter.com/exambin Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+ExamBin -------------------------------------------------
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